• Type of paperEssay (Any Type)
  • SubjectCriminology
  • Number of pages2
  • Writer qualityStandard
  • Format of citationAPA
  • Number of cited resources1

Please answer ONE of the following questions in essay form. Your answer should be no more than five (5) pages in length, and must be completed in strict APA format (12 pt. Times New Roman font, double spaced throughout the entire paper, with one inch margins). Do NOT include outside sources, instead rely solely on the assigned readings and lecture. Essays will be evaluated using the rubric indicated on the syllabus and will be due November 29. 1. Police occupy a central and unique position in American society. They are accorded considerable legal authority to ensure collective security, but must balance this need with individual rights (enumerated in the Bill of Rights). Police practices and organization are a product of this balancing act, with competing societal values determining the activities and structure of policing. Scholars have identified three distinct phases in the development of American public policing that have been a response to shifting societal values. What are these three phases and how have these societal values shaped American police activities and structures since the emergence of public police force? What were/are the consequences (if any) of these policing phases either intended or unintended? 2. Bureaucracy has become the dominant form of social organization within police departments for its promise to control police behavior. The early structures and processes adopted during the professional phase—that largely persist today—were informed by a theory of human motivation and a particular view of the organization that have been challenged and modified in recent years. This emerging theory of human motivation and view of the organization (with respect to its external environment) has implications for police administration. In fact, each of these competing theories and views hold different assumptions regarding human motivation and perspectives regarding the factors that shape agency performance. Identify and explain the competing theories of human motivation and views of the agency, while describing the implications that these assumptions/views have for police administration. 3. Police misconduct is as old as the institution itself. Since the creation of a public police force, the institution has witnessed various levels and types of misconduct that have changed over time. To better understand the sources and implications of this misconduct for the effectiveness and quality of public policing, scholars have identified several varieties that can be distinguished according to officer motivation and conduct. Identify and explain these varieties of misconduct and the distinguishing motivations and behaviors of officers that characterize each type. In your opinion, is any one type more detrimental to the effectiveness and quality of public policing? If so, which and why? If not, why not? we are not required to use any outside sources but we can. The primary source we are suppose to use is policing in America, Gaines Kappeler. It has to be quick and straight to the point.

The police play important and unique roles in the lives of many Americans, as such, they have been conferred substantially many legal authorities with respect to the overall societal security albeit within the confines of individual rights of the citizens. They, therefore, operate striking a balance between the said rights as entrenched in the bill of rights and the progressive societal values in the American soil. This would mean that they have been accorded ultimate authorities which they should discharge guided by the legal parameters that safeguard the human rights, which has proven to be a bit of a challenge to them. In the long run, they are required to provide services that have different effects on the citizens yet are expected to play by the rule of law.

The American public policing has three distinct phases that aim at optimal police delivery. To start with is phase 1; the political entrenchment phase, which happened during the turn of the 20th where the big – city political figures ruled the municipal and government police services. This was a time of political revolution whereby the American society was changing, creating a political entrepreneurship window. Here, the political machines saw the police as a tool to control their rivals and for garnering the votes (Gaines & Kappeler, 2011). They, therefore, required the police to stop their arresting processes and commence providing the services much needed by the society; some departments provided security, lodgings to the homeless people, cleaning services and health services especially in Boston (Gaines & Kappeler, 2011). They were required to accord as much social assistance as possible and lift any restrictions and curfews on the citizens. This has since pitted the role of police versus the law enforcement up to date. This became a breeding ground for corruption which prompted the citizens to push for commissions and law amendments to impede the crime scourge; the changes may include the Pendleton Act of 1883 (Gaines & Kappeler, 2011).

Secondly is the professional phase that began in the 1920s (Gaines & Kappeler, 2011). The phase could be better understood and analyzed using three perspectives (models). First is the role enforcement model where the police had not enforced any laws until the late 1920s as a result of the various reforms. Here, two events facilitated the phase: 1; passage of the eighteenth amendment to US constitution (Volstead Act). The act illegalized the manufacture, sale, and transportation of alcoholic beverages. Hitherto, the police would haphazardly respond to crimes without prior organization and preparedness. They would work in a way that promoted a good rapport with the citizens rather than enforcing the law. The act introduced efficient transformations in practically every aspect of the police departments where it required police to be proactive rather than reactive when it came to crime cases. Second is the depression and the resultant crime wave where the country experienced acute unemployment, insecurity, poverty, bank failures and homelessness. As a survival expedition, many resulted to crime to meet their basic needs; a move that bore many criminals who stole, robbed and killed.

Second is the bureaucratic model where scholars proposed viciously that police departments should be centralized to avert the possible external police influence. Besides, they recommended that the police administration should adopt a military model, this would ensure that the officers were closely supervised and directed. In the long run, they abolished foot patrols and proposed motorized patrols instead; station house was outlawed, and the command functions were designated to a central headquarter.

Lastly is the science and technology model; the police became more and more fascinated by technology. They believed in as much as the police sector had had some transformations, it could not attain a professional status without integrating technology into their operations. This meant that there were reduced police walks to deliver due to the introduction of telephone and a two-way radio call which promoted the societal paradigm of a police above that of a social worker. Many departments also started adopting more efficient recording measures and improved the mechanisms for criminal identification. This included the use of fingerprinting systems, lie detectors and science-based crime labs (Gaines, & Kappeler, 2011).

Third is the Reform phase; the political involvement in the police sector was loathed by both the public and the police reformers in the mid-19th century. After few unsuccessful attempts by the citizens, the reforms began to take hold by the close of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century. Among the reforms was the removal of politics from the policing sector in the US through the introduction of the civil service system; this included creation of grounds for hiring and recruiting police officers and administrators instead of blindly entrusting the politicians with such a critical role which by extension would allow them to implement their selfish political agendas. The phase saw the introduction of the state highway police that aided in the traffic control in the busy US road networks which had substantially increased in the wake of the advent of automobiles. Additionally, the phase leads to the introduction of a police chief and establishment of the school of criminology at the University of California thanks to O. W. Wilson.


Gaines, L. K., & Kappeler, V. E. (2011). Policing in America. Routledge.