This report gives an outline of the relationship between CSR and profitability in water companies in UK. It examines conceptual problems concerning the applicability and relevance of CSR principles in the water industry in the UK. It aims at bridging the space that exists among the CSR and water carrier discourses by supplying some thoughts on the CSR’s unique relevance. An exclusive knowledge of the role of the government, and the adoption of enterprise-huge, as antagonistic to the companies in an attempt to incorporate CSR cannot go unnoticed. The paper seeks to give arguments on the need for CSR in companies in relations to their profit maximization. Many argue that businesses can reap huge benefits through carrying out CSR while others argue that CSR engagement may have a bad impact on the company’s enterprise.

This paper focuses on investigating why businesses engage in CSR, how they observe CSR and the way CSR can have an effect on the monetary overall performance of water companies in the UK. The paper will also discuss how some 13 enterprises in the UK, during the last three years have been able to realize massive benefits from applying CSR. The research finds out that there is a connection between CSR and the profits the water companies realize and therefore recommends all the companies in all sectors to follow suit.

Table of contents

Executive Summary

Index of abbreviations

Table of contents

1.0       Introduction……………………………………………….

1.1       Background information………………………….

1.2       Statement of the problem………………………….

1.3       Purpose and study questions…………………….

1.4       Outline…………………………………………….

2.0       Literature Review……………………………………………….

2.1       Motives that make corporations have interaction in CSR…………

2.2       Application of CSR in water companies in the UK……………….

2.2.1    Factors affecting applicability of CSR…………………….

2.2.2    CSR engagement levels………………………………….

2.3       Correlation among the use of CSR and profitability…………….

2.4       Conceptual framework……………………………………………

2.4.1    Conceptualization of research questions…………………

2.8.1      Summary……………………………………………….

3.0       Methodology…………………………………………………………….

3.1       Purpose of study………………………………………………….

3.1.1    Exploratory study……………………………………….

3.1.2      Descriptive study…………………………………….

3.1.3    Explanatory research………………………………….

3.2       Research techniques……………………………………….

3.3       Study strategy……………………………………………….

3.3.1 Case analysis……………………………………….

3.4       Sample selection,

3.5       Data collection approach………………………………………

3.6       Data evaluation………………………………………………

3.7       Quality requirements……………………………………….

3.7.1    Reliability and Validity……………………………

4.0       Water organizations within the UK that have utilized CSR…

4.1       Organizations’ backgrounds………………………………….

4.2       Motives for the organizations to have interaction in CSR………

4.3       The application of CSR on the companies……….

4.4       The correlation of CSR and profitability in the said businesses

5.0       Conclusion………………………………………………………………

5.1         Pointers and Implications………………………………………

List of references













This paper focuses on investigating why businesses engage in CSR, how they observe CSR and the way CSR can have an effect on the monetary overall performance of water companies in the UK. The paper will also discuss how some 13 enterprises in the UK, during the last three years have been able to realize massive benefits from applying CSR.

This chapter will provide a history of CSR, starting with an overview of the challenge. Similarly, a discussion of the problem will be presented and then consequently the statement of the study questions.

1.1    Background

In the late Eighties within the creation level of industrialization, it turned out that many people widely argued whether it was right or not for companies to place to take their social obligation. Advocates for socially accountable agencies desired to introduce a few shape of social, commercial enterprise ethics with the cause to get companies to make social responsibility. The critics argued that institutions ought to no longer be pressured either with the aid of the policies or regulations. They argued that social responsibility should mean a weakened the cost-efficient growth (Donaldson & Preston 2015, p.43). There have therefore been need to research in the effect of CSR in the water companies. Does it affect the companies’ income positively or negatively? In light of this, thirteen water companies in the UK have been selected as a sample of the wider group of companies.


The call for the water companies to put money into CSR has improved in the recent years from clients; employees; suppliers; community businesses; governments in addition to a few shareholders. As the priority for global warming has extended rapidly during the previous years, there has been as a similarly big boom in demand for CSR (Ryan, et al. 2015, p.78). Numerous organizations have responded to this by growing their CSR investments (Jones 2006, p.34). Due to this, there are more and more firms constantly getting themselves in CSR related problems. Companies are, for instance, starting to get extra solutions to the environment and social issues (Donaldson & Preston 2015, p.45.) However, others have resisted making a move to invest in CSR since it contradicts their aim to maximize on earnings. (Donaldson & Preston 2015, p.47). They have not yet seen the benefits of CSR from others companies.

1.2    Problem Statement

Pressure has accumulated from all stakeholders requiring corporations to take their social responsibility. Customers are therefore starting to make choices that are based upon more than the product; they base their own choosing on human rights, working situations, social and environmental concerns while buying a service or product. (Ryan, et al. 2015, p.23)

Ryan, et al., (2015) state that five key drivers influence the growing consciousness on CSR which includes: more stakeholder awareness of corporate duty, environmental and social behaviour, investor pressures, direct stakeholder pressures, peer pressures as well as a multiplied sense of social obligation. Moreover, businesses are getting to understand the significance of CSR for the corporation’s reputation. (Ryan, et al. 2015, p.34) Continues to argue that CSR has numerous advantages in increasing monetary performance and profitability, reduced running prices, long-term period sustainability for the enterprise and its employees; accelerated workforce commitment and involvement; improved capacity to innovate, proper relations with authorities and groups; higher hazard and disaster control; advanced recognition and brand price and the development of better relations with customers and recognition of client wishes. Jones, (2006) claims that using CSR isn’t always continuously effective for the employer, they trust that there is a significant distinction among industries.

Various studies and literature with varying results have been conducted regarding CSR in water companies in the United Kingdom. Several questions on CSR nevertheless remains, for instance, there may be no obvious answer if CSR activities affect the overall financial performance of these water companies in the UK. Others include why the firms engage in CSR and the way they apply it.


1.3 Purpose and Research Questions

Primarily based on the preceding discussions, we can describe our purpose and study questions. The reason of this research paper is to provide a deeper understanding concerning application and the effects of CSR on profitability in water companies in the UK. This can be executed through answering the subsequent research questions:

  1. what’s the correlation among the usage of CSR and economic overall performance in the water companies?
  2. To what extent do water companies disclose their social responsibility activities in their financial reports?
  3. What is the relation between the percentage of expenditure used by the companies on CSR?
  4. What are the effects of corporate social responsibility on the profitability of a company?


These are the companies this research will focus on



1.4       Outline

This research includes six chapters whose outline may be seen as taking the order of introduction then the literature review, methodology, empirical information, data analysis and finally the conclusion and recommendation.

Introduction – This part gives a background of CSR. It begins with an outline of the subject under consideration. Further, the problem discussion is provided, resulting in motive and formation of the study questions. Later the scope and delimitations are mentioned.

Literature Review – This is a unit that tables the previous theory and research regarding the idea of CSR. It starts with a theory concerning why businesses interact in CSR, continuing with how organizations practice CSR, and it consequently describes the correlation between CSR and financial performance.

Methodology – This one gives the method applied in this research paper. The chapter starts with the purpose of the study, followed by the research approach. Moreover, the strategy and information collection are defined followed by the pattern selection and data evaluation, concluding with a discussion regarding the reliability and validity of the information.

Data evaluation – In this chapter the accrued information collected is defined in assessment to the selected theory of CSR. It begins with studies regarding query 1 on why agencies employ CSR in their dealings, followed by research question 2 that seeks to understand how companies engage in CSR and ultimately study query 3 which describes what the correlation among CSR engagement and overall financial performance is.

Conclusion – This is the part that offers solutions to the research questions and tables the findings and recommendations of this research.



Corporate social responsibility is a form of self-regulation that is integrated into a business model in the corporate form (Schwartz and Carroll 2002, p.67). It functions as a mechanism to regulate the business and tis helps the business to ensure that it is actively compliant with the spirit of the law, ethnicity, national and international norms. Beyond the interests of the firm which are required by the law is what that can be achieved by some models that adopt and implement the CSR. The main aim of this form is to raise the long term profits and the trust by the shareholders and this is achieved through good public relations and ethical standards and this comes a long way to reduce the business risk and take the responsibility of the corporate actions taken (Murray and Jesse, 2014). This chapter will focus on the CSR as general and the reasons that the companies engage in the CSR. The chapter is also going to explore the correlation between the application of the CSR and profitability and the aspects of the same.

2.1       Motives that make corporations have interaction in CSR

The aim of the CSR is to ensure that there is positive impact on the environment and to the stake holders. This includes the consumers, investors, employees and the communities. It is said from previous studies that corporations contribute much in bringing the long term profits by operating with a responsibility perspective. However, there are opponents that argued that the CSR form brings a distraction from the roe of the business models towards achieving or realizing their economic roles. A study that was carried out on the relationship between the social and the financial showed that there were all types of representation of the impacts. That is, there were negative, positive and neutral impacts of the relationship of the performance. However, it was realized that this is from the flaws in the economic analysis and it suggested that when the study is well carried out should show neutral impacts on the financial relation.

Political sociologists have had a say in the corporation in the context of looking at the theories of the globalization and capitalism (Wood 2011, p.78). They have claimed that it stated as a social movement against the uninhabited corporation power. This was later transformed to a risk management and business model device.it is also known to help in the mission of the firms and a guide to the good representation of the consumers. This has made most of the consumers to view it as the help the firms needs to achieve their targets. A good example is from the organizations that are charitable and it is visible that they receive a positive response than the ones that don’t. this basically means that consumers are willing to spend more on the products and the services by these organizations that are charitable.

2.2       Application of CSR in water companies in the UK

One of the reasons that make the companies to engage in the CSR form is due to their moral obligation. In this case they use this form since they feel that it is their duty to do the right thing. This basically shows that the relationship between the business interests and the community is key to the company’s success. Therefore, they use the CSR to ensure that there is a good relation of their profit aim and the social impacts aiming to align themselves to meeting the needs of the community. It is from previous studies that it has been established that a firm or an organization has more than having profit as the main and primary objective. When the relationship is properly aligned it becomes a strong reinforcement were the financial benefit cohabits with the social impacts (Murray and Jesse 2014, p.34). This form is not separate from the profit oriented method. If well harnessed it can produce better outcomes.

Firms also use the form to help to maintain sustainability and this reduces the compromise on the future contributions of the company. This represents the way the company gets well enabled ethical standards and the balance of the environmental and the socio-economical needs. This, in turn, aids in addressing the needs of the shareholders and their customers. In this sector the companies utilize the CSR as a vision for the world that will be based on the global partnerships for sustainable developments. When the form is used as a business management approach the results aims at providing a better value of the shareholders. Corporate sustainability is also known to be shaping the organizations identity and this helps to increase the integration of the business strategy and his yields to successful corporations (Jones 2006, p.98). However, sustainability is not just about the environmental issues but can be understood as a development that attains the needs of the people at present time without having to compromise the ability to do the same for the future generations.   Through CSR the firm is able to balance the resource usage and the supplies over the time. Basically this means that intergenerational equivalence is well assured. This is enabled by the ability of the firm to match the earth’s capacity and to ensure adequate supply in the future. Therefore, the firms use the CSR to ensure that their ability to meet the social needs at the moment and the ones in the future.

Reputation is a very key aspect of setting up business in a certain area and companies have come out to say that they use CSR to improve their image and this comes a long way to improve the strength of their brand. This is because reputation sometimes determine the success of a certain company. This in the case where the products get many new customers or lose customers from the simple fact on the image they have of the company. For example, if a certain company really works on their image and they have a positive perception to their customers, they get new customers that have been recommend the product for by the customers who already know about the product. The impact of doing this is that the firm is able to demonstrate that they are morally upright. Tis helps in getting the trust and loyalty of their consumers. The main aim of this use of CSR by the companies is to raise the stock value.

In order for the businesses to operate they require licenses and this leaves them no other option but to use CSR. This is because the companies need to follow the government requirements for a business to be legal. The regulations may also be from the communities and the stakeholders that help in the conducting of the business. The license basically ensures that the business operations have support from the consumers. This makes it easy to have the social license to operate in the areas that their business is located. This allows the assurance that the companies would consider requests of charity from the community based organizations.

Another benefit that occurs from the companies using the CSR strategy is that they get increased sales and market share. This is known to depend on the customers selecting the product to use from considering factors such as the company participation in the CSR (Wood 2010, p.23). This helps in the long run to position their brand well. as earlier seen this is from the image taken by the customers. The other minor reason that the companies use CSR is that it helps them to get, encourage and retain customers that is from the contributions they get from the company towards bettering the services they offer.

With the context of increasing globalization and economic integration the CSR has gained application in different fields. This means that not only in the business models it has grown to being used in other fields such as the sport sector. This is because the companies are advised to not only focus on the financial and the economic goals but to also turn their focus on the social and ecological impacts (Murray and Jesse 2014, p.99). This could be achieved by looking at the corporate social responsibility and then incorporating in the business operations.

The CSR strategy is known to have three aspects that help it in the making of the corporate business activity. Firstly, we have the economic aspects which is normally overlooked when the strategy is being discussed. It is important to keep in in the discussion. It basically entails getting to know the economic impacts of the of the operations of the company well. This aspect then becomes misunderstood and many people take it to be the financial sector. This leads to the assumption that it is a day to day thing that occurs in the companies. The economic aspect is more than having a well maintained employment data, financial accounts and balance sheets. It involves both indirect and direct economic impacts on the stakeholders and the community due to the operations of the company in the same. This is normally called corporate economic responsibility. A good example of a good financial performance has it expanding its operations and the company is involved in the growth and the welfare of its employees. This is well understood in the cases that the employees receiving better salaries. This means that they end up spending more money and the money gotten from taking is increased and this leads to more developed community.

The companies also play an important role by paying taxes, of which are used to develop the areas around the company’s location. This acts as the social contract of the company to the society near the premises of the company. The company should also ensure that they gain support and trust from the surrounding communities. This greatly affects the way the operations of the company are, to be either smooth or rough Murray and Jesse 2014, p.56. The roughness may occur from economical responsibilities of the company such as bribery, tax avoidance, corruption among others. Therefore, it should clear that the companies should avoid such practices that would destroy their relationship with the stakeholders thus affecting the economic growth of the company.


2.2.1    Factors affecting applicability of CSR

Social aspect of the CSR is really becoming known of late. This is from the fact that companies are becoming more aware of their role on the social impacts based on their operations either directly or indirectly. This means that the company makes decisions on their operations that do not affect the interests of the stakeholders to bring development. The companies must be able to handle their customers very well and this increases on their profits. This may be involved in the safety and durability of their products that the customers buy. It may also involve full unambiguous information concerning the product. The companies should also be responsible of their employees. In this case the company ensures of a safe and good working environment for their employees. The other social responsibility of the company is to ensure fair treatment of the employees regardless of their age, gender and race. The company should also be responsible towards the community. This ensures that the community has positive image of the company. For a company to be prosperous and stable it should be active socially in the areas of its operation (Jones 2006, p.56). This includes development of these surroundings, proving employment opportunities to them, sponsoring events and many others.

Environmental and ecological aspects is the other aspect of the CSR and it is the most important among the three aspects. Looking at the environmental impacts is based on the negative effects that the operations of yth3 company causes to the environment. These effects may be such as pollution, overexploitation of natural resources deforestation among many others. This shows the businesses play a very crucial role in the global environmental condition. There are several tools that are normally used to measure the impact of the environmental impacts. Examples of such tools are ecological footprints and the eco-balance (Wood 2011, p.33). The environmental responsibility can be well managed when the companies decide to advance their old ways of operation to new ones that are more environmentally responsible. This includes cleaner production methods and looking more into the health and safety implications. It has been seen from previous studies that more improved performance on the environment is also helpful to the company. This makes them more acceptable to the public and this becomes a win-win for both the environment and the company in terms of profits.

2.2.2 Level of CSR engagement

There are various methods for taking part in CSR. Taking this into account, and the way that CSR exercises ought to go above and beyond the law, (Donaldson & Preston 2015, p.12). states that CSR incorporates of four classifications: ethical, economic, philanthropic, and legal These are exhibited in “The Pyramid of CSR” as diagram below shows



Do what is desired by stakeholders





Be a good corporate citizen


Be ethical


Obey the law













The progression of the pyramid under which an organization is allocated relies on the way they apply CSR into their business. In the event that an organization falls under Economic Responsibilities they take after the conviction that they have a commitment to create the merchandise and administrations that clients need and want, while making profits at the same time. Under Legal Responsibilities organizations seek after the objective of Economic Responsibilities inside the impediments of composed law. Ethical and Philanthropic Responsibilities incorporate making the wisest decisions and staying away from losses. Ethical Responsibility alludes to unwritten principles, standards, and values certainly got from society, despite the fact that this is more than is required by law. Ethical Responsibility varies from Legal Responsibility since there won’t be legitimate outcomes if the organization picks not to take after these obligations (Murray and Jesse 2014, p.22). Nonetheless, organizations that do not observe their Ethical Responsibility risk suffering losses due to a bad reputation as a result of media reviews. Philanthropic Responsibilities are voluntary and are most of the time beyond the expectations of the water companies.


2.3       Correlation among the use of CSR and profitability

The relationship between the use of CSR and profitability is becoming known recently. It has been noted that profitability is affected by the use or lack of use of the CSR strategy. From the previous explored aspects, it is clear that the different aspects affect the profits that he company gets. Looking at an economic aspect such as the paying the taxes, the company is able to grow its surrounding areas. This may be indirect contribution to the gross profits of the year. Developing the area of the company location leads to a better life for the people around. This means that the stakeholders have a better probability of purchasing the products the company produces. The people and the rate of buying is therefore increased. A good example of such a situation is the water industry in the UK. If the companies involved take in the strategy of CSR, they find themselves growing the surrounding areas (Jones 2006, p.26). By doing so the lifestyle of the people around is better and they end up buying more products from these companies. This shows that the companies have used CSR to raise their profits. Another important aspect is the environmental aspect. In this case, taking an example of the same water companies in the UK that has taken in the CSR. In the strategy it requires the companies to avoid problems such as environmental pollution. The profits depend on their responsibility to the environment. Taking a case of the company being mindful of the surrounding environment, this means that the company does not degrade the areas near them. They end up getting products that are of high quality and this helps them to provide high quality services. This increases their profits by having more people loving their products.

The other aspect that affect the profitability of the company is the social responsibility of the company. In this case, assuming the companies take the strategy of CSR, they are mindful of their employees. This makes the employees to be more devoted to work harder and be loyal to the companies. This makes them to do anything and everything to assist the company. With such kind of an attitude from the employees makes the company to realize its targets without having to struggle to do so (Murray and Jesse 2014, p.44). This shows how the CSR strategy affects the profitability of the company.


2.4 Conceptual framework

            In this part, the conceptual framework which depends on the literature review is portrayed. It begins with the conceptualization of exploration inquiry and then the summary.

2.4.1    Conceptualization of research questions

The research questions depict why and how organizations take part in CSR. To have the capacity to answer this, we have to connect the following accompanying hypotheses:

CSR benefits

Reasons for participating in CSR

Increased pressures in CSR

The challenge of profit maximization

The correlation between CSR and financial performance

The question of timing


2.4.2      Summary

A conceptual summary can be observed as revolving around the following:

  • Advantages the water companies realize by taking part in CSR,
  • reasons why the water companies take part in CSR,
  • increased pressures,
  • profit maximization and its challenges,
  • aspects of CSR,
  • the question of time and;
  • the correlation between CSR and the water companies.
  • It examines the procedure the

This section provides an in-depth insight on the way CSR is related to profitability in water companies in the UK.  It talks about the strategies the authors have embraced together with a clarification of why substance investigation was used to break down the CSR and its relation to profitability; it introduces the writer’s research discoveries and remarks on past work, and additionally endeavors to layout the improvement of CSR hypothesis in organization and management literature.

Below is a table showing the summary of some core articles used in writing this report







Since there is an extraordinary heterogeneity of speculations and methodologies of CSR, the discussion and arguments laid in this paper depends on an exhaustive examination of written material. Different authors have concocted a gathering of speculations in light of corporate firms’ standard and society. The speculations are as per the following:

  1. a) The utilitarian hypothesis,
  2. b) The administrative/ managerial hypothesis, and
  3. c) The relational hypothesis.

Then again, (Ryan, Sheldon & Conroy 2015, p.31) examination maps CSR into four sorts of domains.

These are:

1) Instrumental speculations,

2) Political hypotheses,

3) Integrative speculations, and

4) Ethical speculations.

There are undoubtedly a few likenesses that exist in both conceptualizations of CSR and the exchange that will be founded on accentuations and approaches.

The utilitarian hypothesis

The old thought of free enterprise business offers approach to determinism, independence to open control, and moral obligation to social duty. Utilitarian as well be seen synonymously with instrumental speculations (Swanson 2015, p.20) in which the company is seen as it were an instrument for riches creation, and its social exercises are just a way to accomplish financial results.

The utilitarian hypotheses are identified with methodologies for upper hands. The advocates of these hypotheses are, for occurrence, Jones, (2006) and Wood, (2011) who saw the speculations as bases for detailing techniques in the dynamic utilization of regular assets of the organization for aggressive points of interest. The procedures additionally incorporate philanthropic exercises that are socially perceived as instruments for showcasing.

Ryan, Sheldon & Conroy, (2015) further divide the utilitarian gathering of hypotheses into two, to be specific, the social expenses of the partnership and the possibility of functionalism. The social cost hypothesis has a premise for CSR in which the financial framework in the group is said to be impacted by the corporate non-financial strengths. It is additionally called instrumental hypothesis (Jones 2006, p.45) in light of the fact that it is comprehended that corporate social duty as a simple intends to the end, which prompts the reality that the social force of the organization is appeared particularly in its political association with society.

The utilitarian hypothesis, in this way, proposes the organization needs to acknowledge social obligations and rights to take part in social co-operation. Inside it, the functionalist hypothesis, particularly advocates that the company is seen as a part of the monetary framework, which one of the objectives is benefit making. The firm is seen as a venture, and speculation ought to be gainful to the speculators and partners.


The assumptions that govern the hypothesis are encompassed by a good operator. Utilitarians trust that good specialists dependably need to advance the most ideal result seen from an unprejudiced viewpoint. Hence, organizations are similarly committed to advance the bliss of aggregate outsiders, and those firmly identified with the organization, for instance the workers. Utilitarians have for the most part contended that helping the society, for instance, in the UK instead of generally well-off individuals, for instance, in Denmark, appears to boost bliss as seen from an unbiased perspective, different things being equivalent.

 Administrative Theory

Swanson, (2015) examination further hassles the rationale of administrative hypothesis that underlines corporate administration in which corporate social obligations are drawn closer by the enterprise inside. This has the effect amongst utilitarian and administrative point of view of CSR. This recommends everything outer to the organization is checked for authoritative basic leadership.

Administrative speculations are additionally unequivocally identified with political hypotheses in light of the conceptualization by (Ryan, Sheldon & Conroy 2015, p.56) and upheld by Wood, (2011). They stretch that social duties of organizations emerge from the measure of social power an organization has and the partnership is comprehended as resembling a subject with certain association in the group. The origin of the political force of CSR depends on Swanson, (2015) thought who recommended that business is a social establishment and it must utilize control mindfully. It is moreover noticed that causes that produce the social force are from inside and outside of the partnership.

Social Theory

Social hypothesis has a root from the intricate firm-environment connections. The hypothesis was created by Wood, (2011), examination of partner methodology which were then upheld by the work of Jones, (2006). As the term suggests, interrelations between the two are the center of the investigation of corporate social duty. Decisions about the three gatherings of CSR hypotheses are as per the following: Utilitarian is streamlined in its perspectives by those in the organization viewpoint, administrative is extremely hierarchical arranged and quantifiable; and social is qualities based and in addition associated between the enterprise and society. This conclusion is further fortified by another not really far off conceptualization about CSR in that the speculations are assembled into instrumental, political, integrative what’s more, esteem based.

Instrumental hypothesis is concentrating on accomplishing monetary destinations through social exercises; political concentrating on a mindful utilization of business force in the political field; integrative focusing on drawing together administration issues, open obligation, partner administration also, corporate social execution; and moral hypothesis is stressing techniques to accomplish a decent society.


3.1 Theoretical Issues Underpinning Corporate Social Responsibility


Through CSR, organizations reaffirm their standards and qualities, both in their procedures and operations and in their connection with other social performing artists. Corporate social duty is by and large willful in nature and alludes to exercises that surpass a simple consistence with the law. The social and ecological duties of undertakings may mirror the evolving desires of society. For instance, what ventures consider helpful practices today may gotten to be key tomorrow (Murray and Jesse 2014, p.90). Also, it is normal that diverse social on-screen characters intrigued in the exercises of a specific undertaking will organize distinctive social and ecological requests, which may repudiate or contend with each other now and again.

CSR represents a few difficulties for undertakings, including the need to characterize their obligations concerning those of the general population division, decide the degree of their commitments in the production network and choose until what point later on they ought to foresee and arrange for the outcomes of their exercises, particularly on account of normal asset use. Sober mindedness in corporate social duty is vital in light of the fact that notwithstanding the numerous issues it can address, corporate social duty additionally has its cutoff points and can’t substitute for the part of government in upholding laws and worldwide work models.

CSR as characterized by European Commission (2001) is “an idea whereby organizations incorporate social and natural worries in their business operations and in their communication with their partners on a willful premise” taking after progressively mindful that mindful conduct prompts practical business achievement. CSR social exercises may incorporate magnanimous commitments to nearby and national associations, for example, raising support, gifts and blessings in regions where it exchanges and others like recovery of denied groups, recovery of forsaken area and making of new recovery occupations. In any case, what cuts over various definitions that researchers have proposed on the idea of corporate social obligation is the general conviction that, past the journey to expand corporate benefits, corporate associations assume a significant part in taking care of society’s issues. For Ryan, Sheldon & Conroy, (2015), the crucial thought of corporate social obligation is that “it reflects both the social goals and the social results of business achievement, and that obligation likewise falls upon the enterprise, however the exact sign and heading of the obligation lies at the prudence of the enterprise.”

Such a portrayal of corporate social obligation makes it a required activity in that it accepts that business has an immediate duty to help in tackling society’s issues. We contend that, however the modalities of executing corporate social obligation projects are at the watchfulness of corporate associations, it doesn’t make corporate social duty an uninhibitedly picked project to contribute towards social flourishing. Along these lines, for Aristotle and resulting advocates of the more extensive perspective of corporate social duty, for example, Wood, (2011), the generally held slender perspective of CSR that business is basically worried with benefit making and amplification than social concern is unlikely. According to Jones, (2006), corporate associations should have obligations past basically improving their benefits since they appreciate more noteworthy social and monetary force in any general public.

The obvious clash between CSR and firm goals was seen entirely right on time by the Nobel laureate Milton Friedman, who had announced that any push to use corporate assets for absolutely philanthropic purposes would constitute communism. Truth be told, Friedman prescribed that partnership law ought to be adjusted to dishearten corporate social duty (Ryan, Sheldon & Conroy, 2015). But over thirty years after Friedman made his affirmation, corporate social duty has turned into the standard. Shockingly enough, experimental examination has shown positive, unbiased and even negative effects of corporate social duty on money related execution. While corporate social duty cynics can clarify away the act of corporate social duty as a consequence of weight from society, a clarification for the benefit thought processes behind corporate social duty turns out to be significantly more important to clarify the wellspring of the social weight.


3.2 Corporate Social Performance and Firm Profitability

Hypothetical Review

Money related hypotheses on the association between corporate social execution and firm budgetary productivity depend on harmony resource evaluating models and in addition on the proficient business sector speculation (Jones 2006, p.88). It predicts three conceivable relations. One heading of thinking proposes an unbiased connection. It expects that the danger connected with consistence with Corporate Social Responsibility is not evaluated, along these lines all organizations, corporate social duty agreeing and in addition non-corporate social obligation going along, have the same rate of expected return and face the same expense of value capital (Wood 2006, p.83).

This thinking is in line with standard money and it related issues. if the hazard related to CSR consistence is (accurately) estimated by the business sector, the same hazard returns worldview would suggest a negative connection between corporate social execution and monetary execution. As put forward by Ryan, Sheldon & Conroy, (2015), firms which effectively represent the corporate social obligation hazard component are seen as less unsafe ventures (in respect to the organizations that overlook it).

Subsequently, on a danger balanced premise, their normal returns are anticipated to be lower.

At last, the third view proposes that the consistence with CSR standards is not proficiently valued by business sector members. A positive (or negative) connection takes after contingent upon the indication of the wastefulness. For instance, (Ryan, Sheldon & Conroy 2015, p.56) contend that, if an adequately expansive number of financial specialists think little of (overestimate) the likelihood that antagonistic occasions identified with CSR issues may influence organizations not following the corporate social obligation standards, then their stocks will give lower (or higher) hazard balanced return than socially capable organizations stocks. Since the response to the inquiry whether the danger related to CSR issues is (effectively) evaluated by the business sector can’t be given on hypothetical grounds just, it is financial specialists’ view of the significance of the CSR rule that tallies at last. In the event that financial specialists trusted that organizations executing the CSR standards are asset inefficient, they would decide a negative profit premium for these organizations stocks. To the opposite, if CSR conduct of organizations is in accordance with speculators convictions, they would decide a positive return premium for these organizations stocks (Ryan, Sheldon & Conroy 2015, p.46).



This is a chapter that presents the methods applied in the whole research. The structure of this section can be discovered in the figure below. The part evolves with the study purpose, then the approach, the strategy, data collection and consecutively the data analysis. Moreover, the validity and reliability of the data are mentioned therein.

Research methodology Onion

The onion was invented by Saunders et al. (2007, p 23). It represents the phases that must be secured when building up a study strategy. When all these things considered, every layer of the onion depicts a more point by point phase of the exploration procedure (Wood 2006, p.84). The examination onion gives a successful movement through which an exploration procedure can be composed. Its handiness lies in its flexibility for an examination procedure and can be utilized as a part of an assortment of settings (Wood 2006, p.21). This article will analyse and portray the diverse phases of the exploration onion, and clarify the ideas at every stage. The figure below shows the representation of the onion.


 Method structure

Validity and Reliability





Research Research Research Sample Data Data
Purpose Approach Strategy Selection Collection Analysis




3.1 Purpose of Research

As indicated by Donaldson & Preston, (2015, p.44) contextual analyses can be exploratory, clear or logical. These three sorts will be portrayed independently below.

3.1.1 Exploratory Research

The exploratory examination means to characterize the inquiries and theories of an ensuing study or deciding the possibility of a coveted review system (Jones 2006, p.12). The principle reason for an exploratory research is to gather however much data as could be expected in a predefined area of examination and edify it in an adaptable methodology. This sort of study is frequently used to pick up a more profound information and accordingly a premise for further research.

3.1.2 Descriptive Research

This clear research plans to introduce a complete portrayal of a subject within its setting (Ryan, Sheldon & Conroy 2015, p.33). The unmistakable examination approach answers the inquiries: what, where, who, how and when. Descriptive researchers are frequently utilized when it as of now exists a measure of learning about the subject; this learning can then be used to classify the data into models. Moreover, this kind of study spotlights on examining a couple of aspects of a bigger subject. (Ryan, et al. 2015, 90)

3.1.3 Explanatory research

The informative study presents information relevant for cause-impact connections. It clarifies how occasions happen (Swanson 2015, p.4). At the point when the exploration range and measure of information have turned out to be considerably more far-reaching, leading an illustrative contextual investigation can be proper. This sort of investigation requests that there is satisfactory learning inside the examination zone keeping in mind the end goal to determine hypothetical suppositions into practice. Bearing in mind the end goal to lead an informative exploration the analyst needs to build up a theory and afterward break down the speculation result. It is of real significance that the study must be directed without the danger of an unforeseen variable influencing the outcome. (Wood 2011 p.12)

This research will chiefly have an exploratory research purpose since it means to pick up a more profound comprehension of CSR. As CSR is a somewhat complex phenomenon, a logical examination can be utilized to blow over this mind-boggling subject. Be that as it may, this theory will likewise be elucidating as it answers the inquiry how organizations take part in CSR. Additionally, the theory will have a logical methodology as it examines the circumstances and end results when it answers the inquiry of what the connection between CSR engagement and monetary execution is.

3.2 Research Approach

There are two examination ways to choose from, either a qualitative approach or a quantitative approach. The principles contrasts between these two are the suspicions they are based on (Wood 2011, p.45). We will, however, use quantitative research approach instead. The quantitative examination plan alludes to estimations by data collection and factual realities. (Strand 2013, p.32) This research depends on a qualitative research approach as it spotlights on words as opposed to numbers. This applies to the greater part of the research questions, which are constructed fundamentally in light of composed sources. This was an ideal decision for exploration question one and two as we planned to pick up a more profound comprehension of why organizations participate in CSR and how organizations apply CSR in an attempt to increase their profitability. At first, my objective was to utilize a quantitative exploration approach for examination question three so as to research what the relationship is between CSR engagement and monetary execution. In any case, this was unrealistic since the water companies had not discharged any yearly report in the wake of executing CSR into their business. In this way, we had no measurable certainties to investigate, and we needed to lead a qualitative research approach for this exploration question too.

3.3 Research Strategy

Wood, (2011, p.43) defines research strategy as the procured keeping in mind the end goal to answer the examination questions. There are five noteworthy exploration systems to look over with a specific end goal to respond to the examination questions: tests, reviews, authentic investigation, histories and contextual analyses. These will be depicted further below.

3.3.1 Experiment

The purpose leading an inquiry is to segregate particular components and in detail, get to know their effects. The research intends to find connections and quality of a particular study or to test existing hypotheses. (Wood 2011, p.11)


3.3.3 Archival analysis

The archival study is not just expected to investigate a particular issue it additionally intends to make an answer for the issue. Therefore, this kind of strategy is particularly mainstream in areas, for example, education, organizational development, medical services and sociology. (Jones 2006, p.6).


3.3.4 History

A history research strategy is principally portrayed by studies on the field, and it frequently includes investigations of individuals’ lives and culture. Angles from everyday life are considered as the most critical information. (Strand 2013, p.8).

3.3.6 When to use each strategy

At the point of choosing which system to use, there are three fundamental conditions that require consideration. These conditions are the kind of research inquiries represented, the degree of control an examiner has over actual behavioral occasions and the level of the spotlight on contemporary rather than recorded occasions (Strand 2013, p.35). The proper circumstance for utilizing the diverse examination procedures can be seen in the table below.


  Strategy Form of research Requires control Focuses on
    Question over behavioral contemporary
      events? events?  
  Experiment how, why Yes yes
  Archival analysis who, what, where, No yes/no  
    how many, how      
  History how, why No No

Source: Swanson, (2015)


I chose to direct a contextual investigation as it answers how and why questions. As the enthusiasm for CSR has expanded quickly in the late years, I was interested in breaking down a contemporary event. The way that a contextual investigation takes into account a few information accumulation techniques additionally makes it appropriate for me since I will utilize both written sources such as journals and annual reports from the companies and composed sources. Moreover, this research plans to depict CSR in point of interest and with profundity which is one of the basic qualities for a contextual analysis.

3.4 Sample Selection

A contextual analysis typically requests that the researcher settles on a decision in light of a long series of events, individuals and associations etcetera. The analyst must pick one or a couple of case from a bigger gathering. Notwithstanding the subject, for a case study, the specialist needs to choose a particular case from an expansive number of potential outcomes. (Strand 2013, p.66). The centre of this postulation has been in the water business as it is one of only a couple of enterprises where CSR still is somewhat uncommon. While picking an organization to contemplate the decision fell on the following list of companies:

Affinity water, Albion Water, Cambridge Water Company, Bournemouth Water, Bristol Water, Cholderton and District Water Company, Dee Valley Water Company, Essex and Suffolk Water, Hartlepool Water, Portsmouth Water, South East Water and South Staffordshire Water, as they as of late brought a CSR engagement program into their business. Subsequently, it is intriguing to examine why they settled on this decision and how they execute CSR. Since they are special in their industry to take an interest in CSR, it is conceivable to recognize the companies’ monetary execution contrasted with whatever is left of the business keeping in mind the end goal to look at if there is a connection between CSR engagement and budgetary performance.

3.5 Data Collection Method

In this postulation, I utilized written sources and visited the companies’ websites to be in a position to answer the exploration questions. To increase additional data and as a supplement to this, I utilized their yearly reports concerning the organization and their CSR exercises. I used these sources of information as gathering techniques with a specific end goal to triangulate the subject and to achieve a more reliable result. The perception was no decision since it would be inherently difficult to watch the organization’s CSR exercises. I excluded questionnaires since this is a tedious way of gathering information it is not suitable to utilize when researching an unpredictable subject. Besides, surveys don’t consider follow-up inquiries and it is hard to get accurate data when using this kind of data collecting strategy. (Ryan, et al. 2015, p.55)

As I planned to ponder this particular case, digging deep for the information concerning the company’s online and in the library was the best option. This gave me more profound knowledge about the organizations and their CSR exercises. Uncovering this at the top of the priority list, we reached at the company’s websites before getting to enquire for their annual reports. I spent approximately five hours on each company’s site to get the most out of them. Below is what I got from there.

South Staffordshire Water

South Staffs Water supplies astounding drinking water to around 1.3m individuals and roughly 35,000 business clients more than 1,500 square km in the West Midlands, South Staffordshire, South Derbyshire, North Warwickshire and North Worcestershire territories. The Company reliably accomplishes its twin destinations of conveying high amounts of client administration and low charges. They offer tips and counsel, for example, how to be water productive, and lets clients know how they can profit by the administrations offered by the company. They bring issues to light among clients about how they adjust social, financial and natural needs while keep on supplying perfect, safe drinking water to their customers.

To accomplish this, they work intimately with associations that work in the group and nature, for example, the Citizens’ Advice Bureau, The Wildlife Trust, and nearby schools. They, additionally, work intimately with partners who speak to organizations and instructive areas, industry bodies, for example, Water UK, to guarantee their necessities are reflected in their water business wherever conceivable.  They also consider giving something back to the society as well. Water Aid is one such service they offer. Whether through direct financing or giving assets to the neighbourhood, national and global activities, they are constantly quick to give something back to the communities around. Their work ranges from providing generous stipends to the neighbourhood to supporting their representatives who raise a large number of pounds each year for their picked philanthropy Water Aid.

They are likewise dedicated to giving 400 volunteer days to the neighbourhood communities each year and run an energizing training program. Where suitable they accept there ought to be a component of stimulation in their group engagement action. Whether it is conveying their well-disposed Hippo mascot to schools, giving enlivening converses with the Women’s Institute or supporting neighbourhood firecrackers appear.

Bristol Water

The organization is focused on acting in a capable and reasonable way and tries to be the main case of good ecological administration.


By reference to a scope of manageability measures created by Water UK (the exchange body for water organizations in England and Wales), the organization performs very much contrasted and its associated gathering.


  • were the top-performing water-just organization in the new Carbon Reduction Commitment Energy Efficiency Scheme, what’s more, in the central 4% of all members in the plan;
  • have introduced one of the biggest sun oriented photovoltaic frameworks in the UK, to give free power to their treatment works at Purton;
  • Have upheld the offered for Bristol to be European Green Capital. The offer is currently one of three shortlisted for the last (the champ will be picked toward the end of June 2012);
  • Deal with their landholdings because of biodiversity. Their Sites of Special Scientific Interest are all in “ideal” status. This is the top rating in the water business, and their destinations are utilized as preparing grounds by natural gatherings due to their great ecological condition;
  • Have a top-level responsibility for the reasonable administration of the business. Their Environmental Management Group incorporates the Chief Executive, every single Executive Director what, not senior operational chiefs in the organization; and
  • have executed a formal ecological administration methodology for their AMP5 project, to guarantee that any ecological effects of their work are overseen legitimately.


Social and community


  • convey astounding dependable supplies of water to more than 1.2 million individuals and organizations;
  • Advance client water productivity and give free water efficiency hardware to clients. They additionally focus on free water-productivity reviews for business clients utilizing between 5 ML and 20 ML for every year;
  • Provide public access to their supply locales while keeping up a harmony amongst untamed life and recreational requests. Their supplies in the Mendip slopes have a global notoriety for calculating and winged creature life, and are likewise utilized by walkers, mariners, what’s more, easy-going guests for entertainment;
  • embrace an organized project of instructive backing counting open days, access to guest focuses and school visits; and
  • make beneficent gifts, sponsorships and stipends to the neighbourhood

Associations and people to advance great purposes.


Their employees are indispensable to the accomplishment of the organization. They:

  • they are focused on worker association, correspondence, preparing and sound associations with exchange unions;
  • are an equivalent open door manager giving livelihood, what’s more, suitable offices for physically challenged individuals and for those who have gotten to be physically challenged while utilized by the organization
  • have elevated expectations for wellbeing and security;
  • work extra plans for all representatives connected to money related, what’s more, administration level execution targets; and
  • attempt proceeded with endeavours to enhance the workplace.

Portsmouth Water company

This company enhances it social responsibility in the following ways: through enhancing water efficiency through better methods of harvesting and storage, environmental performance through carrying out sustainable activities that are environment-friendly, enhancing catchment management, working with the community in supporting the locals in competitions and healthy living and offering Water Aid as well.


Hartlepool Water Company

Hartlepool Water is Part of Anglian Water, which supplies a high limit water treatment framework to encourage mechanical immaculate water clients within the Greatham and Seal Sands territory of Teeside. The framework. They try their best to help the neighbouring community in water treatment services. They also have a corporate duty which gives a chance to subsidize untamed life ventures through associations


Cambridge Water

As a water supplier, the company offers corporate and social duty to their clients, partners, employees, and representatives. They consider this obligation important and have confidence in going the extra mile regarding supportability, group backing and offering their employees an awesome work environment. The corporate social obligation is not another idea for Cambridge Water – it has been at the heart of what they do for eras.  They have presented an assortment of vitality sparing measures to decrease the effect on the earth and have continuously effectively upheld the community they serve, with activities, for example, the Cambridge Water Life Funds, offering their workers and this helps them build up a feasible business that takes into the record all the water necessities (Wood 2006, p.77).


Affinity water, Albion Water, Cambridge Water Company, Bournemouth Water, Bristol Water, Cholderton and District Water Company, Dee Valley Water Company, Essex and Suffolk Water, Hartlepool Water, Portsmouth Water, South East Water and South Staffordshire Water


Cholderton and District Water Company

Cholderton shaped a client challenge group (CCG) to permit water purchasers to have contribution to the organization’s ‘Strategy for success’, which went before the 2014 value survey. The CCG has been reconstituted as the Customer Challenge and Advisory Group with a transmit to assume an essential part in the organization’s immediate client engagement, talking about and testing how the organization performs in meeting the results and execution duties set out in Ofwat’s Final Determination. In 2019 the CCAG will speak to purchasers as the organization assembles its strategy for success for the accompanying 5 years. As some time recently, the CCAG will report freely to Ofwat on the adequacy of the engagement procedure and the degree to which shopper sees have affected the last arrangement.

Bournemouth Water

This water company has set up various CSR activities. Some of them include the following

  • Awareness and education
  • Construction of Longham Lakes
  • Conservation of the environment.
    Ibsley Site and the Avon Valley
  • The rivers and wetlands projects
    The Royalty Fishery



The remaining six companies share the following CSR activities; ensuring customer satisfaction through activities such as support for their customers, enhancing water catchment management, taking care of the environment and supporting community projects.

The CSR activities that the companies engage in are represented in the table below:


3.6 Data Analysis

Swanson (2015) portrays that the researcher can look at two general systems while dissecting information either depending on possible suggestions or building up a case depiction. Depending on possible suggestions is utilized when there is a generous measure of past exploration inside the subject. Building up a case depiction is appropriate when restricted examination has been directed at the subject. This theory depends on possible suggestions as it depends on past examination in the field of CSR.

Swanson (2015) states that an information investigation contains three phases: information diminishment, information presentation and conclusion drawing and confirmation. Data diminishment is utilized to hone, sort, centre, dispose of and arrange the information keeping in mind the end goal to achieve conclusions and to confirm them. Presentation implies that the lessened information is shown and sorted out in a predictable way with the goal that conclusions can be found. Conclusion attracting and confirmation alludes to the scientist’s choices of what things mean. The scientist can do as such by researching regularities, designs, clarifications, conceivable arrangements, easy-going streams, and suggestions. When I gathered and broke down the information, I considered information lessening, information showcase and conclusion drawing and check. I considered information diminishment by concentrating on my exploration questions and by disposing of unessential data. After that, I meant to show the diminished information in a reasonable way with a specific end goal to stay away from misinterpretations and to encourage conclusion drawings. When I arrived at the conclusion drawing and confirmations of the information examination, I researched regularities, examples, and clarifications with a specific end goal to come to a “right” conclusion.

Information can be examined in two ways when directing a contextual investigation either an inside case examination or a cross case examination. In an inside contextual research review, exact information is contrasted with the hypothesis. If leading a cross-case study, exact information from various cases are analysed (Strand 2013, p.78). As this postulation concentrates on one case, an inside case investigation was performed, which made it conceivable to contrast reality with the hypothesis. As this proposition just examined one organization it was impractical to lead a cross-case investigation as it requires at least two cases.

Most organizations have since quite a while ago adopted some type of social and natural duty that was later to be known as CSR, with the wide objective, basically, of adding to the prosperity of the groups and society they influence and on which they depend. Be that as it may, there is expanding weight to spruce up CSR as a business train and request that each activity conveys business results. That is soliciting a lot from CSR and diverts from what must be its principle objective: to adjust an organization’s social and ecological exercises with its business reason and values. In the event that in doing as such CSR exercises relieve dangers, improve notoriety, and add to business comes about, that is all to the great. In any case, for some CSR programs, those results ought to be an overflow, not their purpose behind being. This article clarifies why firms must refocus their CSR exercises on this basic objective and gives an orderly procedure to conveying lucidness and control to CSR systems.

To see how organizations, devise and execute CSR, over the past the outcomes were astoundingly predictable. In spite of the broadly acknowledged perfect of seeking after “shared quality”— making financial worth in ways that likewise make esteem for society—our examination proposes this is not the standard. Or maybe, most organizations practice a multifaceted rendition of CSR that runs the range from immaculate charity to ecological supportability to the dynamic quest for shared quality. Additionally, all around oversaw organizations appear to be less keen on absolutely incorporating CSR with their business techniques and objectives than in concocting a pertinent CSR program adjusted to the organization’s motivation and qualities.


In any case, albeit numerous organizations grasp this wide vision of CSR, they are hampered by poor coordination and an absence of rationale interfacing their different projects. Albeit various reviews have touted the expanded contribution of CEOs in CSR, we have found that CSR projects are regularly started and keep running in an awkward route by an assortment of inside directors, much of the time without the dynamic engagement of the CEO.


To boost their positive effect on the social and ecological frameworks in which they work, organizations must create reasonable CSR techniques. This ought to be a crucial part of the employment of each CEO and board. Adjusting CSR programs must start with a stock and review of existing activities. Our exploration and work with partnerships over the geographic and business range demonstrate that organizations’ CSR exercises are ordinarily partitioned among three regions of practice. Allotting CSR exercises in like manner is an urgent initial step.


Focusing on philanthropy.


Programs around there are not intended to deliver benefits or specifically enhance business execution. Cases incorporate gifts of cash or gear to city associations, engagement with group activities, and backing for worker volunteering.


improving operational effectiveness.


Programs around this sector capacitate inside existing plans of action to convey social or natural advantages in ways that backing an organization’s operations over the quality chain, frequently enhancing productivity and viability. In this manner they may—however don’t generally—build income, diminish costs, or both. Cases incorporate supportability activities that decrease asset use, waste, or discharges, which may thus lessen expenses; and interests in representative working conditions, medicinal services, or instruction, which may upgrade profitability, maintenance, and organization reputation.


transforming the business model.

Programs around there make new types of business particularly to address social or natural difficulties. Enhanced business execution—a prerequisite of activities around there—is predicated on accomplishing social or natural results. Dominant part of the water organizations by and large, while expanding country access to cleanliness items hence add to general wellbeing. These social additions have been met by business picks up for the organizations.

As the exploration illustrates, range three projects need not be extensive. Most are restricted activities attempted with an engaged business sector fragment or product offering at the top of the priority list, however with noteworthy potential to change the organization’s social or ecological effect and money related execution. Zone three activities quite often require another plan of action instead of incremental expansions.

Albeit each CSR movement can be appointed chiefly to a solitary range, the limits are permeable: Programs in one zone can impact and supplement those in another or even relocate. For instance, range one activity may enhance the organization’s notoriety and subsequently build deals. Consequently, while it was not intended to drive business results, it might wind up doing as such and subsequently relocate to zone two. The significant brand notorieties of the vast majority of these organizations are inherent part on those organizations’ generous and group engagement.

as the organizations expect to twofold deals by that year, they forcefully leave on exercises inside CSR that drive the improvement of new plans of action to close the post-shopper reusing circle.

Developing a Unified Practice Platform

When administrators have stocked their company’s CSR exercises, they can start the thorough undertaking of conveying order and intelligence to the portfolio all in all. Drawing on the experience of members in the water organizations CSR programs and the exploration done, it is apparent that organizations looking to facilitate set up portfolios ought to start with the point that accentuates justifying the projects inside every range. Organizations assembling their first portfolios ought to begin with building up an interdisciplinary system.

3.7 Quality Standards

Estimation blunders are imperative to contemplate when directing an examination, in this manner, it is essential to consider the consistent quality and legitimacy.


3.7.1 Reliability and Validity

Donaldson & Preston, (2015) state that unwavering quality alludes to the way that estimations are led accurately. The criteria for consistent quality depends on lack of bias of the exploration instruments; they ought to give the same result autonomous of the particular case. At the point when the consistent quality is reliable, two studies utilizing the same strategy will give the same result (Jones 2006, p.12). Donaldson & Preston, (2015) state that legitimacy implies that information and strategies are “right”. Concerning research information, legitimacy alludes to whether the information mirrors reality and reality and spreads the complete inquiries. (Ryan, et al. 2015, p.33)

The water companies, therefore, seem to perform well in CSR across all the fields. The maximize their profits through doing this since customers tend to be attracted the more when they observe that the companies take responsibilities in the different aspects. But when it comes to leakage, Clients think that some water companies do better than others. They have associated spillage to be responsible for unreasonable bills.  The following graph shows the score of each company according to written sources concerning client feedback and complaints.


Green colour means that the organization’s execution is in accordance with or superior to anything anticipated. Amber means the organization’s execution is not in accordance with desires but rather execution has slipped just marginally

On the security of supply, the companies performed as shown below according to the written data:


Source: CSR in Water Companies in the UK, 2015


In this report, I was able to get a lot from written sources and the companies’ websites, a thing that enabled me to get the relationship between CSR and profitability in the water companies. The sources enabled me to have the capacity to triangulate CSR.










This part introduces understanding gathered from money related archives and composed sources. It gives brief organization foundation, followed by Motives for the organizations to have interaction in CSR and then the application of CSR on the companies.


4.1       Organizations’ backgrounds

The list consists of the following companies: Affinity water, Albion Water, Cambridge Water Company, Bournemouth Water, Bristol Water, Cholderton and District Water Company, Dee Valley Water Company, Essex and Suffolk Water, Hartlepool Water, Portsmouth Water, South East Water and South Staffordshire Water.

  1. Affinity water

This is as water company that gives close to 900 million liters of water every day to a population of more than 3.5 million individuals in parts of Hertfordshire, Surrey Bedfordshire, Berkshire, Buckinghamshire, the London Boroughs of Harrow and Hillingdon and parts of the London Boroughs of Barnet, Essex, Brent, Ealing and Enfield (Strand 2013, p.88). They likewise supply water to the Tendring landmass in Essex and the Folkestone and Dover zones of Kent. Affinity Water Limited is claimed by a consortium of financial specialists drove by Infracapital Partners and North Haven Infrastructure Partners

  1. Albion Water

Albion Water was authorized by the Water Services Regulation Authority (Ofwat) in 1999, it was one of the newest contestants in the market to go up against the imposing business model in water organizations in the UK. They have now built up a model quality and ecological record, constructing a hard-won notoriety as a water organization arranged to develop and to advance a superior, more responsive water industry. Legitimately, they have the same forces and obligations as some other water organization in England and Wales. They offer different services to their clients ranging from water, wastewater, seepage and more extensive natural administrations services.

  1. Cambridge Water Company

This is an organization that supplies fresh water to the Cambridge town and college as a business endeavor. The organization remained private until 1996, when it turned into a Public Limited Company. In 2011, Cambridge Water PLC was obtained by South Staffordshire Plc.

Cambridge Water supplies underground water that is pumped from boreholes. A sum of 97 for every penny originates from chalk and three for every penny originates from greensand aquifers. The water they provide meets the guidelines of value set in the European Community Directive 80/778/EEC and joined into enactment in England and Wales by the Water Act. Under the Water Industry Act 1991 they were named by the Secretary of State as the Water Undertaker for a region which incorporates Cambridge and stretches out to Gamlingay in the west, Ramsey in the north, Melbourn in the south and Balsham in the east. They cover a population of 319,000 and have 133,000 clients (Ryan et al. 2015, p.11).

The organization’s family unit clients have a portion of the most minimal bills in England and Wales, while profiting from the largest amounts of client administration, as measured by our controller Ofwat. This is accomplished against a setting of working in of the driest and quickest developing ranges of the UK and shows the organization’s capacity to get ready for the future, while keeping up moderate costs. Cambridge Water bills and gathers sewerage charges in the interest of Anglian Water.


  1. Bournemouth Water

       Bournemouth Water gives drinking water to roughly 500,000 individuals from Bournemouth to Salisbury in Wiltshire and from the port town of Poole to Beaulieu area in the New Forest, a zone of more than 1000 square kilometers. They offer water services. Sewerage and wastewater administrations in their vicinity given by Wessex Water and Southern Water. Their clients therefore get bills or proclamations from two water organizations in the event that one happens to be in their vicinity. The water bill is from them while the sewerage bill is from an alternate water organization.

  1. Bristol Water

Bristol Water supplies 257 million liters of drinking water daily to more than 1 million clients in a 2,600 km2 region fixated on Bristol, England. It is managed under the Water Industry Act 1991. Sewerage administrations in the Bristol territory are given by Wessex Water. Around a large portion of the water is taken from the Mendip Hills, especially Blagdon Lake, Chew Valley Lake, Barrow Gurney Reservoirs and Cheddar Reservoir, with the other half is channeled from the River Severn by means of the Gloucester and Sharpness Canal. There are 6,382 km (3,966 miles) of nearby water mains.


  1. Cholderton and District Water Company

The Cholderton and District Water Company is the regions smallest water-service provider. It serves a region on the fringe of Wiltshire and Hampshire in the south of the England. It supplies around 2500 individuals over a territory of around 21km² in the areas of Bulford and Cholderton in Wiltshire, Thruxton, Amport and Shipton, Bellinger and Quarley in Hampshire. It is a private restricted organization with organization number 357098. (Mason 2006, p.23). The water organization was built up by an Act of Parliament in 1904 by Henry Charles Stephens, of Finchley, north London, the child of Henry Stephens, the pioneer of the Stephens Ink Company. It is claimed by the Cholderton Estate. Cholderton and District Water Company does not give sewerage administrations; mains sewerage offices are given by Southern Water in its range.


  1. Dee Valley Water Company

Dee Valley Water is an organization which supplies drinking water administrations to parts of North East Wales and parts of North West England. Its guardian substance, Dee Valley Group PLC has shares that are recorded on the FTSE Fledgling Index on the London Stock Exchange. It is directed under the Water Industry Act 1991.

  1. Essex and Suffolk Water


Essex and Suffolk Water is a water supply organization in the United Kingdom that works in two topographically particular regions, one serving parts of Norfolk and Suffolk, and the other serving parts of Essex and Greater London. The aggregate populace served is 1.8 million. Essex and Suffolk is a ‘water only’ supplier, with sewerage administrations given by Anglian Water and Thames Water inside its supply regions. It is a one of the components of the Northumbrian Water Group.

  1. Hartlepool Water

Hartlepool Water is a water organization that covers the town of Hartlepool in County Durham and encompassing territory in the North East of England. Since 1997 it has been possessed by Anglian Water. Hartlepool Water does not give sewerage administrations. These are given by Northumbrian Water. The organization was initially framed as the Hartlepool Gas and Water Company in 1846, was re-consolidated into Hartlepool Water Ltd. This was back in the year 1995. Its organization name was, on the other hand, renamed in 2006 as Osprey Water Services Ltd of Anglian Water’s. The head office holding organization number is 3017251.

  1. Portsmouth Water

Portsmouth Water is a service organization in charge of water supply and dissemination in the City of Portsmouth, some portion of East Hampshire and some portion of West Sussex. Places served incorporate Gosport, Fareham, Portsmouth, Havant, Chichester and Bognor Regis. The organization is a private constrained organization with organization number 2536455.

  1. South East Water

South East Water is a UK supplier of drinking water to 2.1 million clients in Kent, Sussex, Surrey, Hampshire and Berkshire. It is a private restricted organization enrolled in England and Wales with organization number 02679874. The organization supplies 565 million liters of drinking water from its water treatment works and oversees more than 14,500 kilometers of its water mains daily. The organization’s supply range covers 5,657 square kilometers. It takes water from streams, repositories and underground sources (aquifers) under deliberation licenses issued by the Environment Agency

  1. South Staffordshire Water.

South Staffordshire Water plc, also popularly referred to as South Staffs Water is a UK water supply organization claimed by an exclusive utilities organization serving parts of Staffordshire and the West Midlands, England. South Staffordshire Water Plc is a piece of South Staffordshire Plc. It bought Cambridge Water in 2011. In 2013, KKR and Co. L.P., an organization enrolled in the United States of America, procured South Staffordshire Water from Alinda Infrastructure Fund.


4.2       Motives for the organizations to have interaction in CSR

As indicated by the composed sources as well as the organizations’ sites, the associations trust that there is a worth in being a “decent” citizen and additionally advise the general population of what they do to improve as individuals. They trust that it is critical to live as one learns and in doing as such the organizations get enhanced brands and notoriety. They additionally express that it is essential for them to be among those at the forefront in the water industry to take an interest in CSR. They depict CSR as “intensely hot” at this moment. Some of them portray that they need to demonstrate the business sector that they are inventive and that they have an approval state of mind. Besides, in their yearly reports, they express that they take part in CSR keeping in mind the end goal which is to improve their driving business sector position (Jones 2007, p.45).

The majority likewise see their CSR engagement as a specialized apparatus and as a type of commercial advantage as it permits them to be noticeable in various circumstances with the assistance of CSR. They say that by taking an interest in CSR, they will connect with more clients as well as new ones. They portray it like this: “It is about being unmistakable to the general public”. They portray that their employees are influenced by their CSR engagement, and that they feel spurred and pleased to work at an organization that takes an interest in CSR.

They figure that CSR will turn out to be significantly more imperative sooner rather than later. They contend that there will be increased pressures from partners and clients that organizations assume their social liability. They additionally express that there will be similar pressure on organizations to present supportable reports. They contend that there will be a movement from the conventional yearly report that does exclude any supportable reporting. They are setting the pace since organizations sooner rather than later will have statutory necessities to show a feasible corporate report.


4.3       The application of CSR on the companies

There exists a Code of Conduct that has been set to administer the water organizations in accordance to CSR. The code depends on the organization’s qualities in cooperation, initiative and incredibleness. The approach for CSR was executed in 2007 and depends on Global Compacts ten rules, which is a UN program intending to advance social and natural duty of worldwide organizations (Swanson 2015, p.17). The ten rules are in the field of human rights, work norms, environment and anti-corruption. The companies have subsequently occupied with CSR exercises that revolve around this code.

The organizations depict that they have taken an interest in CSR by:

  1. presenting arrangements for naturally cordial administrations,
  2. putting resources into a decent workplace for their representatives and that advisors have been connected to build up a decent work space with ergonomic arrangements,
  3. taking an interest in various types of sponsorship in the society and in games.
  4. supporting human rights activities and to refraining from taking part in business exercises that misuse human rights.
  5. Acting in a socially dependable way, within the laws, traditions and conventions of the nations where they work, and contribute in a capable way to the advancement of the society.
  6.  acting in a way that minimizes the harming ecological effects of their business operations.


empowering the charitable, instructive and group administration exercises. The organizations underpin global and nearby endeavors to avert monetary crime and corruption. (Frederick, 1998, p.90)

Over and over again, administrators have seen CSR as simply another wellspring of weight or passing craze. In any case, as clients, representatives, and suppliers—and, in fact, society all the more comprehensively—place expanding significance on CSR, a few pioneers have begun to take a gander at it as an innovative chance to generally fortify their organizations while adding to society in the meantime. They see CSR as integral to their general systems, helping them to innovatively address key business issues.


The enormous test for administrators is the way to build up a methodology that can genuinely convey on these elevated desire—and, starting yet, few have found the way. In any case, some inventive organizations have figured out how to conquer this obstacle, with savvy banding together rising as one approach to make esteem for both the business and society all the while. Savvy cooperating concentrates on key territories of effect amongst business and society and creates imaginative arrangements that draw on the integral capacities of both to address significant difficulties that influence every accomplice. In this article, we expand on lessons from savvy cooperating to give a down to earth path forward to pioneers to survey the genuine chances of CSR.

There is no single acknowledged meaning of CSR, which prompts a lot of perplexity about what constitutes a CSR action. We can start to build up a working meaning of CSR by contemplating its double goals—profiting business and society—and the scope of potential advantages for every situation

Corporate social responsibility: The landscape

Numerous organizations seek after CSR exercises that can best be named pet activities, as they mirror the individual interests of individual senior officials. While these exercises might be given much clamour and exhibition, they generally offer insignificant advantages to either business or society. In the centre are endeavours that can make both sides feel great yet that produce restricted and frequently uneven advantages. With altruism, for instance, corporate gifts give the lion’s share of advantages on society (with potential yet frequently sketchy reputational advantages to the business). So also, in what’s best alluded to as promulgation, CSR exercises are engaged basically on building an organization’s notoriety with minimal genuine advantage to society. A few critics propose that this type of CSR is, best case scenario a type of publicizing—and conceivably risky on the off chance that it uncovered a crevice between the organization’s words and activities.

None of these methodologies understand the open doors for huge shared worth creation that have been accomplished through keen collaborating. In such ventures, the centre of the business moves past maintaining a strategic distance from dangers or upgrading notoriety and toward enhancing its centre worth creation capacity by tending to major vital issues or difficulties. For society, the centre movements from keeping up least norms or looking for subsidizing to enhancing job, the general personal satisfaction, and expectations for everyday comforts. The key is for every gathering to take advantage of the assets and mastery of the other, finding imaginative answers for basic social and organizations challenges.









Through carrying out research through reading composed material and visiting the organizations’ websites, I have achieved the purpose of picking up a more profound comprehension relating CSR to profitability in the water companies in the UK. This has, therefore, enabled us to be able to answer all the research questions.

I have been able to tell why many the water companies engage in CSR and how they relate this to profitability. We have seen that they use the CSR activities to attract customers from their area of operation and beyond. Other reasons that make them use CSR include the urge to improve their notoriety and image to their clients. Besides, by taking part in CSR, the organizations could keep their water business position as CSR gives them an upper hand. In this study, I found that the groups participate in CSR as they have conservative instigations. As anyone would like to think, numerous organizations use CSR keeping in mind the end goal to increment money related execution. An organization’s primary objective is typical to serve the enthusiasm of its shareholders and boost its benefit. So why would an organization use CSR if it does not reap from it?

CSR engagement has expanded the most recent years, and this can demonstrate that organizations utilize CSR as a technique when clients have expressed interest in knowing what the organizations’ CSR engagements are. CSR has begun to increase expanded enthusiasm from society everywhere, and this has influenced organizations to incorporate CSR into their business exercises. As the environment has become an issue of always keeping the mind in case of any business activity, it has undoubtedly been a contributing element for the expansion in CSR engagement. However, what partners and stakeholders want is a perpetually evolving process. Companies give items and administrations that there is a need for. At present, there is an expanding interest for CSR dynamic organizations. But in any case, what’s on the horizon is hard to foresee, and we cannot tell what will happen in the future.

In light of the discoveries, I have reached the following conclusions. The exploration found that an organization could participate in CSR so as to:

  • Improve their reputation and image
  • Gain a competitive advantage
  • Increase financial performance
  • Achieve customer Satisfaction.

These thirteen water companies apply CSR in various ways some of which are similar. In this research, I have been able to identify some of the typical activities in which companies participate in CSR as being charity work, environmental protection, improvement of the work environment for employees and sponsorship. The organizations have a significant portion of their exercises within the region of ecological assurance where they have an approach for naturally benevolent autos, rules for voyages and purchase ins. They additionally have research going on concerning this issue to break down how the organizations can turn out to be considerably eco-friendly. Besides, in the study, I learned that the organizations guarantee that they take part in CSR by conceptual concerns. For instance, the organizations express that they take an interest in CSR by supporting human right despite the fact that it is not a solid CSR movement.

Given the discoveries, I have arrived at the conclusions on how organizations apply CSR, which can be done in two ways, that by robust exercises like contributing cash to give unprivileged youngsters training or through more theoretical exercises like supporting certain issues, a company can win their client’s trust (Wood 2006, p.80).

On what the connection between the utilization of CSR and budgetary execution is, I discovered that there are numerous perspectives concerning the relationship between CSR ventures and their effect on profitability. In this study, I believe that the organization’s CSR ventures will influence the organization’s execution decidedly as clients worth CSR exercises. The organization’s reputation and organization image can be enhanced, and this could bring about expanded profits all the same. As we all know, clients settle on choices in light of organizations’ social obligation.

However, in the research, I have not had the full capacity to examine the relationship that exists between CSR and monetary execution in all the thirteen companies since CSR has been actualized in some of the organizations not a long time ago. Not more than a couple of their yearly reports after the usage of CSR have been discharged and along these lines I have not been able to locate any statistical backing for my suppositions (Wood 2006, p.86). However, it is my belief that the organizations’ CSR engagement will influence their monetary execution decidedly just as it has done with others. Numerous stakeholders have begun to request CSR dynamic organizations because they have realized that it is the obligation of the companies to do that.


5.1 Recommendations and implications

This segment begins with a presentation of how the motivation behind this proposition has been realized, trailed by proposals to the administration which depend on information and discoveries. Lastly, my suggestions concerning the issue are portrayed.

5.1.1 Implications for theory

The purpose behind this postulation has been to pick up a more profound comprehension of CSR and relate its role in the profitability of the thirteen water companies in the UK. Writing and experimental information have been utilized to investigate, portray and clarify the research questions. I consider my hypothetical structure to be helpful to clients and companies seeking to know more of CSR exercises. My finding matches well with a hypothesis, and I am content with them. However, as my proposition depends on written material to investigate these companies, it is somewhat difficult to sum up my discoveries.


5.1.2 Implications for practitioners

As exhibited before in this report, the enthusiasm for CSR has been rising quickly lately. Organizations are beginning to see the advantages of CSR and clients are starting to request that organization assume their social liability. I would personally say this concerning CSR: CSR can enhance budgetary execution for an organization. However, planning is essential. Presently there is a solid interest for CSR dynamic organizations. At this moment there is a decent planning to put resources into CSR. It is important that the organizations showcase their CSR exercises keeping in mind that one of the primary goals is to educate partners about their CSR engagement and in this manner increase their profits through e.g. motivated employees, expanded deals, and enhanced reputation.

Since the objective for most organizations is to augment profits, it is significant to keep up a parity in CSR venture. On the off chance that contributing an excess of it can challenge the objective of benefit augmentation. The organizations have to keep in mind that if their investments are too little, they risk losing their customers’ trust and ruin their reputation. If they invest too much on CSR, they are at a danger of lowering their profits as well.

It is vital to recollect that there is a need for companies to be decent and carry out their responsibilities and not just carry out their activities for monetary gains. This can influence how clients see the organizations. CSR has gotten to be “scorching” and I foresee that it will be considerably more vital sooner rather than later. It is even conceivable that organizations will be constrained by law to direct an economic improvement report. Along these lines, I would recommend that organizations assume their liability now and begin taking part in CSR.


5.1.3 Implications for future research

This report has given a more profound learning within the field of CSR. However, there are still numerous fascinating areas to examine. In light of this, we can see that the clients’ interest for CSR is high right at this point and time. It is, however, hard to tell what will happen some few years from now in the days to come. Consequently, it is intriguing to direct this kind of study to dissect if there have been any progressions in CSR engagement and provided that this is true.  And since my point was to investigate what the relationship between CSR and profitability in the thirteen water companies in the UK is, I did not get have to interview the companies. This would have been a plus since it would give an insight on the correlation (Wood 2006, p.89).  On top of that, some of these companies have not published as many yearly reports as would be required to come up with an unbiased conclusion. It was, therefore impractical to explore if the organization’s CSR engagement had influenced all of them in their organization’s execution. Hence, I suggest this be done in the future examination.

I would also like to recommend a more extensive investigation of CSR since it is a very vast field that cannot be constrained in a narrow scope.  It would be better if a researcher examines more than one organization with a specific end goal to recognize similarities and contrasts between them in this manner have the capacity to stipulate a broader answer.







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