Earthquakes and Tsunamis.

Tsunami: Causes, Consequences, Estimation, and Response an Annotated Bibliography

  • Type of paperAnnotated Bibliography
  • SubjectEnglish
  • Number of pages4
  • Format of citationMLA
  • Number of cited resources10
  • Type of serviceWriting from scratch

Number of pages are not important. As long it has 10 sources with hanging indent. Authors names should be in alphabetical order. Under each source should be a summary of 1-2 paragraphs. In YOU OWN WORDS Analyze & evaluate, reflect how it fits in my research. Ask yourself has it changed how you think about the topic. Summarize main arguments, The title should be the one you wrote for me on Tsunami. I will be sending the sources i need it has to come from my SCHOOL ′s LIBRARY database. Please follow these directions my instructor asked for. thanks


Earthquakes and Tsunamis.

Esteban, Miguel, et al. “Overtopping of Coastal Structures by Tsunami Waves.” Geosciences 7.4 (2017): 121.

Some regions are frequented by tsunamis than others. After the earthquake and tsunami in Tohoku in 2011, the world started thinking about ways to shield the coastlines from tsunamis. Tsunamis range in intensity depending on the height of the waves. In Tohoku, the height of the waves raged from ten meters to forty meters. Structures can be built at the beach and at the onshore to reduce the velocity of the water waves and in the process reduce the level of destruction they cause. This article plays a major role in helping to reduce destruction caused by tsunamis.

Gusiakov, Viacheslav K. “Relationship of tsunami intensity to source earthquake magnitude as retrieved from historical data.” Pure and applied geophysics 168.11 (2011): 2033-2041.

Tsunamis are caused by earthquakes on the seafloor. The magnitude of the earthquake determines the height of waves of the resulting tsunami. When a warning system sends a warning signal, the warning is sent with a grade between 2 to 5 depending on the level of danger that the tsunami is expected to cause. This article explains the relationship between an earthquake and a tsunami. Whenever there is an earthquake, it I likely that a tsunami will follow. This article explains the dependence of tsunamis on earthquakes. Therefore the intensity of a tsunami depends on the magnitude of the earthquake.

Igarashi, Y., et al. “Anatomy of historical tsunamis: lessons learned from tsunami warning.” Pure and applied geophysics168.11 (2011): 2043-2063.

The destruction caused by a tsunami after it hits an area is very high within a few minutes. After the Aleutian Islands tsunami in 1946, there were massive casualties. In order to ensure that human life and property is protected from tsunamis, warning systems were established. The tsunami warning systems have evolved over the years into better and effective systems. With improved technology and better means of communication, tsunami warning systems are more effective and reliable. Data collected in the past is used to develop more sophisticated and reliable systems. In the past, tsunamis were notorious in the Pacific Ocean only, however, in the year 2004 a tsunami in the Indian Ocean was an indication that tsunamis can strike anywhere. Therefore, all ocean shorelines should be equipped with warning systems to protect and prevent life loss. This article shows the evolution of tsunami warning systems and the role they play in preventing the destruction caused by tsunamis.

Lane, Kris. “Charles F. Walker. Shaky Colonialism: The 1746 Earthquake-Tsunami in Lima, Peru, and Its Long Aftermath. Durham, NC: Duke University Press. 2008. Pp. xiii, 260. Paper $22.95, cloth $79.95.” The American historical review 114.5 (2009): 1505-1505.

In 1746 a tsunami plus an earthquake hit Lima and Peru. The fascinating thing about this earthquake is the theories that arose to try and explain the cause of these catastrophes. The people had never experienced such a thing before. The aftermath of this catastrophe led to major changes in Peru. The tsunami and earthquake led to the massive destruction in Lima. The city had to be rebuilt. All the people had to come together to build the city. This article explains the history of tsunamis and how they affected the ancient societies where a scientific explanation was not yet developed.

Masuda, Reiji, et al. “Recovery of coastal fauna after the 2011 tsunami in Japan revealed by bimonthly underwater visual censuses conducted over six years.” (2017).

One of the aftermaths of a massive tsunami is the disturbance of the marine ecosystem. Due to the force that a tsunami carries, different marine ecosystems are disrupted and they may be completely destroyed. However, after a tsunami, the conditions that are left provide a perfect opportunity to study the regeneration process of various ecosystems. This article talks about a study of the fauna after the massive tsunami in 2011 in Japan. Every two months after the tsunami, an underwater visual census was conducted to establish the change in a number of various fishes. The number of fishes increased between the first and the second year and stabilized before the fifth year. This article helps to understand how marine life is affected by a tsunami and how it recovers after the tsunami.

Monastersky, Richard. “The next wave.” Nature 483.7388 (2012): 144.

After a tsunami hit the Japanese city of Kesennuma, more than one thousand people lost their lives. Since the city is prone to tsunamis, the coastline has barriers to block the waves in case of a tsunami. However, this specific tsunami was quite strong and the water waves poured over the barriers. The emergency manager of the coastal community in the city knew about the tsunami before the tsunami hit the city. However, he did not know the exact height of the waves and therefore he did not advise the community members to seek refuge at higher grounds. This article emphasizes on ways in which to increase awareness before a tsunami and in the process save lives by warning the residents before a tsunami hits. If the residents of Kesennuma had been adequately warned, the death toll would have been lower. The events in Kesennuma can help the rest of the world learn to prepare for a Tsunami and reduce the loss of life in case a tsunami strikes.

Raj, S. B. “Personality and Coping in Overcoming PTSD A Longitudinal Study among Tsunami Survivors.” Journal of Psychosocial Research 8.1 (2013): 85.

After any traumatic event, survivors tend to develop a post-traumatic stress disorder. Survivors of the aftermath of a tsunami are no different. Survivors of a tsunami suffer from perceived stress and other conditions as a result of the tsunami. This article assesses the conditions of a number of female survivors of the Nagapattinam district tsunami.  In the study, the symptoms of PTSD and stress were observed one month after the tragedy and also after one year. The study shows that personality plays a major role in how survivors recover after a tsunami. Also, the way of coping with the tragedy also determines how fast a survivor gets over the events of the tsunami. This article is important as it stipulates how to help survivors of a tsunami.

Schnepf, N. R., et al. “Time-frequency characteristics of tsunami magnetic signals from four Pacific Ocean events.” Pure and Applied Geophysics 173.12 (2016): 3935-3953.

The seafloor is the main source of Tsunamis and the activities that take place on the seafloor lead to Tsunamis. Magnetometers are used to observe and sense tsunami signals that are usually electromagnetic in nature. Any activity that takes place on the sea floor is monitored to determine whether the event may lead to a tsunami or not. This article aims at establishing the time-frequency characteristic of various tsunami signals and in the separate noise from the real data. The information in the article helps in learning how to separate the tsunami signal from noise. The study carried out will help improve preparedness for Tsunamis in various areas. A tsunami will be detected in time to warn those living around the area and in the process reduce casualties when a tsunami strikes.

Song, Jie, Raffaele De Risi, and Katsuichiro Goda. “Influence of Flow Velocity on Tsunami Loss Estimation.” Geosciences7.4 (2017): 114.

The intensity of a tsunami is measured in accordance with the depth of the floods it causes and the height of the waves. However, the impact a tsunami has on structures depends on more than the depth of the floods. The velocity that the waves flow in also determines the impact of the tsunami on structures. This article explains a simulation that estimates the tsunami loss by putting into consideration the flood depth and the velocity of the waves. The article is important as it shows that an accurate estimate of expected loss must consider both inundation depth and flow velocity of the waves.

Yates, Michael. “Medical-surgical nurses volunteer to aid tsunami victims.” Medsurg Nursing 14.5 (2005): 331.

The aftermath of a tsunami is characterized by massive destruction of property and a high number of human causalities. A number of people are severely injured during a tsunami. Also, families are displaced as their houses are destroyed by the waves. After the southeast part of Asia was hit by a tsunami, the world’s relief and healthcare organizations mobilized to help the survivors with water, food, shelter, and health services. This article explains the role of various professionals and groups in the aftermath of a tsunami. How fast the various rapid response teams get to the tsunami-affected areas determines how many lives get saved.