Chapter two-Nation Branding revised


Nation branding is a collaborative effort of the country’s people and the government to help build the nation’s brand” (Yee 2009, p.1). In today’s world, countries that try to attract tourist, businesses, students, major events and entrepreneurs will do it better if the country’s image is strong and positive (Anholt, 2011). Governments that want to influence the public’s perception have to take an active role and use all of their means (e.g. tourist bureaus) in order to shape their country’s brand (Reibstein, 2016). Thus, nation branding is a key factor in creating the right image globally, in order to gain a “sustainable differential advantage” (Dinnie, 2008, p. 4).

Countries therefore need to sell themselves in order to better their economies through foreign investment, tourism, education and exports. They therefore need to campaign effectively in an effort to improve their brand. The use of social media has been taken as being an efficient way for that purpose but has had several drawbacks all the same. This report discusses the effectiveness of the use of social media in national branding in Israel.  The report gives proof of the new media landscape in which the branding in Israel is happening.

The methods applied in coming to the conclusions portrayed herein are use of both secondary and primary data. This includes written resources, internet resources as well as surveys. Interviews were done and surveys conducted. It was found out that the use of the social media could be an effective method in nation branding campaigns for Israel though a lot more need to be done. The country needs to employ strategies that will ensure that their media presence is felt and the negative publicity is reversed.



CMO –  Chief Marketing Officer
CPC – Cost Per Click

CRM –  Customer Relationship Management

CMS –  Content Management System
NBI –  National Broadband Initiative
OTA –  Online Travel Agent
SEO –  Search Engine Optimization
e-WOM –  Electronic Word of Mouth
WTTC – World Travel and Tourism Council











Table of contents

Abstract……………………………………………………………………………. i

Index of abbreviations…………………………………………………………….ii
1.0 Introduction……………………………………………………………………5

1.1 Background…………………………………………………………….5

1.2 Rationale for the study……………………………………………….7

1.3 Research objectives…………………………………………………8

1.4 research Questions ………………………………………………….9

2.0 Literature Review and Conceptual Framework…………………………….10

3.0 Research Design and Methodology……………………………………….21

3.1 Sample Selection………………………………………………….29

3.2 Sampling techniques………………………………………………30

4.0 Results, Analysis and Discussion………………………………………….34

5.0 Conclusions/Recommendation…………………………………………….46

List of references




Key Words

New public diplomacy, Nation branding, social media, new media, Discourse analysis,
semiotics, content analysis, Tourism, audiences



















With the world amidst an online networking upheaval, it is more than evident that social media like Facebook, twitter, Orkut, Myspace, Skype and so on, are utilized broadly with the end goal of correspondence. A standout amongst the most critical points of interest of the utilization of social networking is the online sharing of knowhow and data among the distinctive groups of people at different places. This internet sharing of data too advances the expansion in the relational abilities among the individuals particularly among learners of educational organizations. This has generated a feeling of liking towards a certain country or destination just because one saw something positive about it on social media. Realizing this, countries have taken on the social media platforms to market themselves to interested audiences in a positive way. They have realized that Social media have the potential to, in a general sense, change the character of our social lives, both on an interpersonal and a group level.

The nation of Israel has for a long time tried their best in trying to convince people to buy their brands. They have initially done this through their foreign affairs ministry, army training, offering scholarships and selling product in the international market. They have however lately employed the use of social media in the nation branding campoaigns.it has been difficult for them at same point but the effectiveness might increase with time. This research therefore seeks to table findings gotten after looking at the issue in a deeper perspective.

Rationale for the study

In the worldwide experience economy, countries contend against each other for the consideration of foreign governments, businesses, investors, tourists, consumers, and international media (Skinner and Kubacki, 2007). While trying to emerge among contending and differentiating voices, countries use branding and showcasing apparatuses to advance a novel and positive image to their national and global publics (Fan, 2006).

Today, a country’s image has ended up a profitable resource and a wellspring of upper hand (Passow, Fehlmann, and Grahlow, 2005). Hence, numerous countries are included in brand-building activities, which influence their image on one or a greater amount of the extraordinary monetary, social, political, furthermore, HR that they have (Anholt, 2004). Governments participate in these activities since they comprehend that popular assessment of a country altogether influences the achievement of its global business, remote speculation, a tourism activity, and in addition its strategic, social, and financial relations with different countries (Anholt, 2006). Furthermore, these endeavours permit countries to impart a reasonable picture crosswise over various channels and to diverse audiences in different countries.

A country brand being a multidimensional development mirroring the central estimations the reputation that ought to be imparted to host, and transnational audiences in an unmistakable and predictable style (Kotler and Gertner, 2002).  A standout amongst the regularly advanced qualities of a country brand is its appeal as a tourist destination (Volvic and Andrejevic, 2011). This highlight takes into consideration associating with individuals everywhere the world who have an enthusiasm for adapting more about the nation.

country branders and nation reputation supervisors use social media to market their country since it is a cheap method that reaches quite a big number of people.  It is counted amongst the best, particularly for tourism advancement (Avraham and Ketter, 2012).

The social media additionally take into account two-way correspondence, adding to a sense of individual identification with destinations, and changing clients into dynamic members (Avraham and Ketter, 2012). While marking through conventional media takes after a straight model of correspondence where end-clients are viewed as inactive beneficiaries of data, doing as such through social media is about building a relationship and discussion with your group of audiences (Drury, 2013).

Given this new connection for country marking, this section concentrates on how nations use social media to convey solid, exceptional, and ideal country brands to their different target audiences and the difficulties that efforts of this kind would stand for.

Nations utilize an assortment of ways to deal with addition favourable position over contenders for exchange, tourism and remote venture. In their endeavours to showcase their uniqueness to outside gatherings of people, they effectively take part in dealing with their image (i.e. what they anticipate) and notoriety (i.e. how they are seen). Customarily, a nation’s image is essentially moulded by the way it is depicted in the media (dfsdfsf). Thus, how the media depict a nation influences the way individuals feel about it; at the end of the day, it influences the nation’s notoriety (Brewer, Graf, and Willnat, 2003; Wanta, Golan and Lee, 2004).

This report is therefore going to explore the convenience as well as the efficiency of the method in achieving the desired goals. the research is going to be done using different resources that include but not limited to written material such as books, journals and newspapers, web resources and peer-reviewed resources.



Objectives of the study

  1. To analyse the impact of Social Media as a means of
    communication tool
  2. To assess the efficiency of social media as a tool of national branding
  • To evaluate the full potential of social networks as a tool for communication
    connections that are web enabled.
  1. To recommend the best ways in which social media can be fully utilized in national branding

Research Questions

The research seeks to answer the following questions:

  1. Why do Governments around the world relay on nation branding?
  2. How do ministries, specifically in Israel, use social media? And what is the effect of social media on their country brand?
  3. How and to what extend has social media influenced the world tourism as well as tourism in Israel?
  4. How would an effective an effective social media campaign in a medium that is constantly changing be build?








In this chapter, hypothetical data with respect to nation branding, new media and in addition a short foundation on the present circumstance of Israel under which the venture has risen, will be discussed. It is a chapter that gives the comparison between what different authors hold for the issue of nation branding or against nation branding.

Nation brand is a vital idea in these days. Globalization implies that nations contend with each other for the consideration, regard and trust of investors, donors, consumers, tourists, the media, immigrants, and the governments of different countries. Therefore, an effective and positive nation brand gives an essential upper hand to a country over its rivals. It is key for nations to see how they are seen by others around the globe; how their accomplishments and failures, their advantages and their liabilities, their citizens and their products are reflected in their brand image (fgdfddf).

An overview of social media

The term ‘Social media’ alludes to the utilization of electronic and portable advancements to transform correspondence into an intelligent exchange (Higgins, 2010). In the expressions of Andreas Kaplan and Michael Heinlein, it might as well be referred to as online networking which is a group of Internet-construct applications that work in light of the ideological and mechanical establishments of Web 2.0, and that permit the creation and trade of user-generated content.  Social media, according to (Ashworth and Karavatzis 2010, 20) is empowered by pervasively open and adaptable correspondence procedures. It has generously changed the way associations, groups, and people convey. Online networking goes up against various structures including social websites, magazines, wikis, online forums, video sharing, microblogging, weblogs, podcasts, photos or pictures, rating and social bookmarking. By applying an arrangement of hypotheses in the field of media exploration (social presence, media abundance) and social procedures (self-presentation, self-divulgence) Kaplan and Haenlein made a characterization scheme for various online networking classifications in their Business Horizons article (2010). As per Kaplan and Haenlein there are six distinct sorts of online networking: community ventures (for instance, Wikipedia), web journals and microblogs (like Twitter), content groups (like YouTube), long range informal communication destinations (for example Facebook), virtual diversion universes (a good example being Universe of Warcraft) and virtual social universes (for instance, Second Life). Innovations on the other hand include: online journals, picture-sharing, vlogs, divider postings, email, texting, music-sharing, crowdsourcing and voice over IP. A significant number of these online networking administrations can be incorporated by means of interpersonal organization accumulation stages. A review of online networking has been demonstrated as follows:

Figure 1: Overview of online networking (Source: Higgins, 2010)

On the other hand, Ashworth and Karavatzis (2010) have discussed how other platforms like Greatly Multiplayer Online amusement (MMO) could be used for national branding.  MMO is a multiplayer computer game which is equipped for supporting hundreds or a large number of players at the same time. By need, they are played on the Internet, and more often than not include not less than one diligent world. This is a platform that could as well be used to create a reputation for a country.

Through online networking, the user can likewise distribute any news and perspectives by means of the web. Digg is one prime case of such media. It is a social news site. Digg Dialog, Facebook Connect, Digg Bar, Digg API (Application Programming Interface) are the essential components of Digg. One could as well examine on any issues on Skype, Hurray or Google Talk. Furthermore, there is the choice of bulletin boards.

According to Higgins, (2010), social media is quickly making up for lost time as a method for keeping contacts furthermore imparting data to others. Microblogging is another method for posting messages on the web. Twitter is a well-known microblogging site. There are likewise livestreaming of recordings accessible online for the viewers to see. A virtual world is an online group that appears as a computer based reproduced environment through which clients can cooperate with each other and utilize and make objects. The term has turned out to be to a great extent synonymous with intelligent 3D virtual situations, where the clients appear as symbols obvious to others. These symbols normally show up as printed, two-dimensional, or three-dimensional representations, albeit different structures are conceivable (sound-related and touch sensations for instance). Virtual worlds are not restricted to diversions but rather, contingent upon the level of quickness exhibited, can include video conferencing and content based talk rooms. The use of the above said media channels could be utilized to exhibit a positive image concerning a country. This could be done by the way people from the country behave online or show their expertise in a given social arena.

Livestream, once known as Mogulus, is also a live streaming video sharing platform that permits people to view video content through the web. Clients can stream live video or communicate pre-recorded video in their channels, using different cameras and on-screen representation. Social gaming ordinarily alludes to playing amusements as a method for social collaboration, instead of playing diversions in isolation, similar to some card recreations (solitaire) and the single-player method of numerous computer games. Informal organizations locales like Orkut, MySpace, YouTube and so on and various other comparative destinations including the social bookmarking destinations like Reddit and Digg on the Web make new virtual groups where discourse and trade of thoughts through words, pictures and sounds occur crosswise over national and provincial outskirts. Higgins, (2010) expresses his thoughts on this where he says that the essential elements of correspondence that are incorporated into any person to person communication destinations are inboxes, dividers, status messages, notes, and remarks. A large portion of the general public incline toward utilizing informal organization as the essential method for correspondence. The social media has made a good correspondence medium along which individuals communicate and get different bits of data which is a good channel through which a nation could sell a positive image and reputation to others.

Social Media and Nation Branding

One of the works that discuss the issue of nation branding is one by Sitaram Asur and Bernardo A. Huberman, Predicting the Future with Social Media. In their work, they exhibit how online networking could be utilized to anticipate genuine results in an attempt to achieve positive image on the social media as a country. They explain how feelings extricated from social networks like Twitter or Facebook can be further used to enhance the determining force of social media.

In different source, Workplaces and Social Networking, by Tom Higgins, Ben Hicks, Andrea Broughton and Annette Cox, the strategy and work on identifying with the utilization of social medial in nation branding by representatives is discussed. Their conclusions are drawn from an effectively drawn strategy that they had effectively drawn in to some degree with the issue of online networking. The strategy was also required to figure out the relationship between associations and noteworthy in UK businesses. The primary association was British Telecom (BT), and the second association was Her Majesty’s Revenue and Customs (HMRC).

Another article that yet discusses the issue of nation branding in relation to social media is, Predicting tie quality with Social Media, by Karrie Karahalios and Eric Gilbert. The article presents a prescient model that maps online networking information to tie quality. The model expands on a dataset of more than 2,000 online networking ties and performs entirely well, recognizing solid and feeble ties with more than 85% exactness.

Nation Branding: The case of Israel

According to Fan (2006), New items can be situated from the start in the way the advertiser wishes. For existing brands, in any case, for example, nations, a branding exertion generally includes a re-situating exertion, which includes rethinking the properties, advantages, and general image of the brand so clients see its quality in respect to rivals in various and more positive ways. Solid brands, and nations whose brand pictures are capable, have likewise been fruitful in recounting a convincing brand story and speaking to shoppers on various levels. But this has not been the case with Israel. Israel, has in the past, suffered a negative image on social media mostly because of their conflicts and the said dreaded acts against Palestine. People all over the world have therefore shared a seemingly similar perception of Israel as being inhuman and unfriendly (Fan, 2006). The same has been seen in the way they treat immigrant from Africa, Mostly South Sudan. Videos have been uploaded on social media showing the Israelis, full of hate, spreading propaganda and racist messages.

The question that remains in the minds of many is the capacity in which Israel ought to handle the errand of reconstructing its already tarnished image. Philip Kotler, (2015) has enunciated some option situating procedures in Marketing Places: Attracting Investment, Industry, and Tourism to Cities, States, and Nations (with Donald H. Haider and Irving Rein), a few of which are material to Israel’s own particular procedure of moulding the way it is seen by the outside world.

Kotler’s first recommendation includes what he calls “real positioning,” that will be aimed at changing Israel’s real credits to make the nation more alluring, the same systemic cultural, social, and political change that Anholt feels is essential. For a few nations, real positioning could involve just building another world-class air terminal or an industrial complex. For Israel, it might include shedding the apparition of militarism so tourism is not antagonistically influenced by tourists fear or terrorism in the country. This is because there have, for a long time, been a fear by tourists and investors that the country is rocked with terrorism and hate. This has been charged by the political flimsiness and a few firms’ ethical misgivings about operating is a nation that is at war. Obviously Israel’s foes have a kind of veto force in this domain.

Kotler’s second proposal is to actualize the procedure of “psychological repositioning,” the most usually utilized method and one that is especially reasonable to Israel’s situation, where the numerous real characteristics of the nation are in themselves wellsprings of solid brand value. In any case, many years of universal purposeful publicity about “occupation,” mistreatment of the Palestinians, being a relentless military power going up against a frail adversary these coexisted images, whether genuine or envisioned, are, lamentably, part of individuals’ mentalities when they think of Israel (Kotler, 2002).

Inspiring consumers to recall or consider more constructive parts of the nation, for example, its characteristic assets and grand magnificence, its open, democratic society, thriving educational frameworks, scriptural and sacred spots wrought with history, and a detonating innovative economy will begin the procedure of mental repositioning; it will start to get individuals contemplating what the real quintessence of Israel is, and shouldn’t something be said about the nation being pertinent to their own lives (Volvic and Andrejevic, 2011). That message must be rehashed persistently, unmistakably, and reliably so that each “touchpoint,” occasions at which consumers interact with the brand, strengthens Israel’s value prepositioning.

Israel’s visibility, obviously, has not been the nation’s real issue: review respondents show a high brand attention to Israel. The issue has been that the impressions individuals have of the nation, their observations and brand picture, have been commanded by negative properties, just about to the complete rejection of the positive. A portion of Israel’s specific issue is that its “competition,” which is supposed to be countries eyeing the same target business sector or consumers, are not simply a group of different nations competing for buyers, exchange, and tourism needs. Israel’s essential rivalry, influencing how their image affability components and brand pictures have been to a great extent developed by their advanced strife with the Palestinians. It has also been influenced by how worldwide divestment campaigns and anti-Israel talks like the anti-Semitism rhetoric, have made an entire group of brand images neither controlled by nor complimenting to Israel. That pattern can be turned around, but again, just through an integrated marketing correspondences methodology that talks with one voice and recounts the positive story that Israel can really tell when it is not just protecting its legislative issues and blunt reactions to fear.

Israel in an attempt to create positive image to the outside world

The irony is that Israel’s establishing image story, that of a small, brave new country rising up out of the fiery debris of the Holocaust, vanquishing an Arab surge, and conveying sprout to the desolate desert, was an effective, resonant image for the initial 20 years of the State’s presence. That position has successfully been pre-empted by the Palestinian cause now, as they have assumed the casualty position and their own battle for nationhood and self-assurance has obscured that of Israel and has gathered boundless sensitivity. So despite the fact that Israel still sees itself in its initial unique position, and characterizes itself as being even now, its consumers in the outside world have repositioned and “weakened” the Israeli brand without the consent or comprehension of Israel itself (Avraham and Ketter, 2012). That previous brand image does not resound and can’t add to brand value for Israel any more.

What is required is a vital, engaging branding effort that drastically changes Israel’s passionate relationship with its clients. Nation Branding, as Wally Olins (2013) reminds us, “must be unmistakable. After all, the purpose of branding is to separate your offer from that of your rivals.” That is, nonetheless, easier said than done, the same number of nations and states who have attempted to make brands images have found.

Nation Branding in Times of Crisis

Amid times of relative calm, Israel’s image consisted three segments: Israel’s position as the Middle East’s lone democratic system, Israel as a bastion of Western qualities in the Levant and Israel’s position as a world pioneer in technological advancement. However, amid times of crisis, this image underwent a drastic change to the negative.

For instance, amid the late military outdoors in Gaza, the image Israel advanced on SNS incorporated the accompanying components: its status as a casualty of fear and terror (#IsraelUnderFire), its part as the main line of defence against Islamic radicalization and brutality, its entitlement to defend the lives of its civilians and a case to good prevalence as the Hamas association targets regular citizens instead of the IDF that targets militants (dfghj).


It appears that at times, crisis do wreck nation branding exercises. At different times, countries might have the capacity to incorporate their already promoted self-image into their reaction to crisis. This could be done in an attempt to contend over public opinion amid times of crisis while really fortifying their nation branding exercises.

In any case, it is imperative to note that amid times of turmoil, a country’s image is likewise impacted by foreign actors. A good example is the case of Gaza. Amid the Gaza crisis, Israel delineated itself in a specific way as well as the Palestinian administration and Hamas association (Anholt, 2006).

Effectiveness of social media in Nation Branding

Social media platforms serve as good selling points for nation branding since they utilize the already existing audience. Persons in charge of nation branding could share information concerning major tourist destinations, business opportunities, safe and sound working environments, investment opportunities, favourable economies just to name but a few in the social media platforms.

It is more than self-evident, that branding stems out of the general field of advertising, which has been regularly called as “mother source” of branding. It is trusted that it is the utilization of promoting to a unique kind of items, called places (Ashworth and Karavatzis 2010, 8). However, this is not to infer that the entire thought of country marketing is a novel one. As Ashworth and Karavatzis (2010), claim the cognizant endeavour of governments to shape a particularly outlined place identity and elevate it to distinguished markets, whether outside or inside it, is just about as old as the government itself. In the same work, they say that place marketing in planning was made conceivable, by a progression of applied and down to earth improvements inside advertising.

Critique on the Usage of the social media in Nation Branding

There have however been critique on the above named ideologies. According to Hankinson (2010), it is clear from the assorted qualities of the reviewed literature that nation branding has been, and will keep on being, contemplated from a few points of view, some of which take a basic perspective. Such a study is communicated by Simon Anholt as well, who may be a standout amongst the most renowned authors and scholastics on the field. Simon Anholt is completely associated with the term of nation branding, as he is the person who presented it. He has led numerous researches about it, based on pointers, trying to rank nations as indicated by their image discernment. Notwithstanding, he communicates his opposition to the way this term has been perceived. He expresses his critique on the term nation branding itself as he rejects the notion that it is conceivable to “do branding” for a nation (or a city or a district)

Similarly, that organizations “do branding” with their items and administrations, as vain and not wise. He emphatically trusts that administration approaches can’t be supplanted by correspondences and it takes more than publicizing and PR crusades to adjust the image or reputation of a city or a nation (Anholt 2010, 9). As indicated by him, a more reasonable definition for such acts is “competitive identity” (ibid, 11). He additionally asserts that it is hard to set up clarity on this point, since just a couple nation branding activities seem to incorporate any arrangement for measuring their effect or viability. At the end of the day, he implies that albeit a few particular activities have seemed willing to “do the task”, not very many of them have considered discovering approaches to gauge their campaigns’ viability. In the same book, he additionally alludes to the thought of open strategy, in that it is the thing that gets regularly mistaken for nation branding and place marketing.

Open strategy is to be specified inside the course of proposition. However, for the most part within the idea of “new open strategy”, which fits best to the particular contextual analysis of this work, Anholt additionally specifies that when he presented the expression “nation branding”, he planned it to be seen as that places have brand images rather than wrongly asserting that places can be branded, which he accepts to be an extremely aggressive and totally doubtful case (Volvic and Andrejevic, 2011). To sum up Anholt’s faultfinder on place marketing, he guarantees that it is not about correspondence but rather strategies and that it takes three fundamental standards for a country to advance itself in a viable way. Methodology, which according to him, is for a country to know where it stands, where it needs to get to and how it should accomplish it, content which is the compelling execution of that technique and typical activities which are a piece of the content however with an open force. At the end of the day, developments, special legislation adjustments, ventures, foundations or approaches that can have an emphatically positive perception hence sway on the general conclusion towards the country being promoted.

Advantages and disadvantages of user generated information on social media

Social media has numerous advantages when it comes to selling a place, be it a country or a destination. Referring to Israel as “The Holy Land” and sharing images of top tourist attraction has made the country improve its image to the outside world. From time to time, you will have someone post an image on social media showing how much they are enjoying their time in Israel.  The pictures might show people floating in the Dead Sea, touring the old city of Jerusalem, snorkel or scuba diving in the Red Sea, standing at the end of Ramon crater, haggling in the Carmel Market, visiting the Mountain fortress of Masada or enjoying the marvel at the Baha’i Gardens in Haifa.  These images attract the attention of others on social media and elevates their will to visit the destinations as well.

On the other hand, some images and tags that might be posted on social media may result to bad popularity of the country. There have been several cases where the image of Israel as a nation has been tarnished by postings related to the Israeli-Palestinian war. More often than not, you will see graphical images of badly beaten Palestinians posted on social media. Even though the images might be distorted or taken from other sources, as many would say, the end result is the same; bad popularity to Israel. Images showing killings at West Bank, the Gaza Strip and Jerusalem have injured the brand of Israel as a nation.













3.1 Introduction

The purpose of this section is to clarify the research methods applied and the particular strategies utilized as a part of this study, the sampling methods and people’s reaction to interviews, the way in which data analysis was done, and how the constraints and hindrances that emerged all through the process were overcome. It is a chapter that is dedicated to the empirical section of the research. It will focus on the research methods for the data collection and sample selection. The chapter will then provide the insight and the design of the interview questions, the variables and techniques which were applied in an attempt to analyse and test the hypotheses.

3.2 Research Purpose

The motive behind this study is to assess the viability of social media use on nation branding. The information gotten is deciphered and examined taking a critical stance, hence enfolding numerous exchange focuses that shape a pluralistic perspective over the subject.

The purpose for this decision is the longing to incorporate information that have a more exploratory nature, that can offer the probability of making expository contentions, stepping back from the very subjectivist point of, for instance social constructivism. This was done not to affirm or deny a speculation, but rather as a sign of how the present methodology is seen the objective audiences. It is a more exploratory point of view, which offers the probability of uncovering more practical recommendations.



3.3 Research Approach

3.3.1 Type of investigation

The research will examine available literature on the topic and will combine the two methods; exploratory study, to allow deeper understanding of the situation by offering some open questions to the participants, which will enable me to draw conclusions based on the information gathered, and descriptive study, to provide a summary of the questionnaire and to better describe the phenomena (Collis and Hussey, 2003).

The data in this paper can be extensively partitioned into inductive and deductive approaches. The nature of the source relies on upon the source where the data was taken from, whether it was from internal archives issued by the administration, for instance yearly report or government’s site, or data originating from outer sources, for example, articles or statistics. The explanation behind picking such a methodology depends on the endeavor of building a more basic argumentation.










Figure 1: Data collection process

3.3.2 Data collection methods

The data for the research will be compiled with qualitative and quantitative research. I will conduct unstructured interviews (over the phone) with key members of both the tourism and foreign ministries in Israel as well as unstructured interviews with UK based diplomats. The interviews are essential to understand and investigate the process done to achieve the current nation branding and the methods used by the government on social media. I will also submit an online questionnaire, to investigate how Israel is portrayed by the public and to examine how successful and effective are the campaign run by the ministries on social media.

Contrasting qualitative and quantitative strategies, the principle distinction is that the first recognizes the significance of subjective experience and it offers the likelihood of creating more in-depth information (Wolcott 1997).

Both techniques have focal points and weaknesses. Taking a gander at the quantitative assessment and research strategy, Patton (1990) contends the advantage of the quantitative methodology is that it is conceivable to gauge the responses of numerous subjects to a constrained arrangement of inquiries, hence encouraging correlation and factual accumulation of information (p. 165).

As opposed to quantitative techniques, the qualitative methodology can accumulate nitty gritty and rich information, but just for a little number of subjects. A standout amongst the most essential viewpoints in the technique choice is the reason that the analyst needs to accomplish the final goal; which in this case is to relate social media with nation branding in Israel specifically (Coll and Chapman 2000).

The interview questions will include: What is the strategy/ approach of the foreign ministry in regards to the branding of Israel, Are there other Israeli ministries who are partners to the nation, How do you implement the strategy in the UK, Which social media channels does the department use and what do you do, What are the difficulties on social media, and do you think that Israel branding process is successful?


3.3.3 Research Paradigm

Krauss (2005) notices that one of the primary attributes of qualitative researchers is that of being reliant on the connection. The participatory way of qualitative research is contrary to the observatory way of quantitative strategies. Healy and Perry (2000) allude to quantitative approach as a restricted mirror, where information does not change and the researcher has the part of an observer.

The decision for quantitative system was affected by the worldview picked and in addition by the reason for the survey, which was to quantify the social media sway on the residential audience. As it will be brought up later, this sort of technique is prescribed in drawing nearer social media and client conduct. In this manner, social media request offers the likelihood of get-together various information and extending the discoveries to a broader level. The study is done for the local audience in Israel and utilizing a quantitative technique, the research can profit by achieving an assorted audience, with various age and inclinations. Paradigm framing

The mindset used for approaching this study is placed in the critical theories of science. Throughout the research, the discourse starts from a more analytical interpretation and heads towards critical input, after gathering the data from the quantitative study.

3.4 Data Collection

3.4.1 Types of data collected

Through the information gathering process, the specialists need to choose which kind of information sources will be the best ones to give significant and valuable data to the research. As indicated by Ghauri and Grønhaug (2005), information sources can be partitioned into two classifications: primary and secondary. Secondary data

Secondary data helps comprehend and clarify the research issue (Ghauri and Grønhaug 2005, p. 91). This type or information can concentrate on particular study issues and they don’t address the primary focus of the research (Coyer and Gallo 2005).

It alludes to data or studies that as of now exist and that the researcher can access to bolster distinctive positions taken all the while (Duncan 1991). For instance, in this paper, a few insights were given as case to bolster explanations, translating the information. Such insights include: web user conduct in Israel, number of guests, monetary circumstances and so on.

Furthermore, data originating from Twitter, Facebook and Israel’s legitimate site were utilized to depict the government’s activities with respect to nation branding in the virtual world. The hermeneutical impact pointed the study towards the need of comprehension and deciphering reality and such illustrations offered the likelihood of picking up understanding in Israel’s methodology and how the group makes utilization of these tools. It can be contrasted with a more qualitative methodology, as it offers in-depth information, yet these are more useful illustrations that assistance at applying hypothetical ideas.

Advantages of using secondary data include being time proficient and practical. They likewise uncover information around a number of persons and can be summed up. With the end goal of the paper, this angle is critical as it addresses the domestic market all in all and the studies conveyed into discussions can be material to the whole Israeli population. Primary Data

Primary data is unique information gathered by the analysts for the research issue close by the researcher in accordance to the problem at hand (Ghauri and Grønhaug 2005, p.91). The same authors say that with primary data, the explanation for consumer conduct will be uncovered. Primary data incorporate surveys (questionnaires), experiments, observations and interviews. Information gathering through these sources gives both preferred standpoint and inconvenience to the study.

Advantages include being gathered for the specific task close by and being accordingly more reliable with the research questions. They additionally uncover qualities about customer conduct, government choice or issue.

However, the researchers can experience a few impediments from gathering primary data too. They can be tedious and costly. In addition, it might be hard to discover target groups that would be willing to participate and answer the inquiries. The analyst relies on upon the readiness and capacity of respondents. Besides, sudden and uncontrolled elements may impact and meddle with proficient information accumulation. These limitations must be taken into contemplations while gathering primary information (Ghauri and Grønhaug 2005).

3.5 Research Strategy

3.5.1 Phone Interview

For primary data, the researcher needs to choose a good channel through which to speak with the respondents. The correspondence does not need to be immediate or one on one and personal. Inquiries can be asked via telephone and the reactions recorded. This kind of information accumulation makes it conceivable to sum up the outcomes and test hypotheses (Ghauri and Grønhaug 2005). Saunders et al (2009) state that in some non-institutionalized settings, this particular data collecting technique is prescribed.

Daymon and Holloway (2002) explain the benefits of a telephone interview. They express that it gives an open door for the researcher to gage the sincerity of the interviewee. Particularly if the interview happens crosswise over different time zones. this kind of interview permits the researcher get moment answers to the inquiries detailed. Also, this sort of interview permits the member to be more intelligent in light of the fact that he or she can require significant investment to react in a more measured manner. For this case, the questioner led the interview from Israel and the United Kingdom while the interviewees were in Israel and the UK as well. The information gathered from the two cases were recorded.

An interview was directed to ask UK based representatives what their take was on the image of Israel was to the outside world. The design was to get more data about Israel which can’t be recovered from the web or yearly report of the government’s services. The data can likewise be utilized to bolster the information that was at that point found through the secondary information.

However, the interview is a piece of the primary information set of sources, as it can be utilized to supplement the data assembled through the optional information sources, as for instance site or the yearly report

3.5.2 Survey

Ghauri and Grønhaug (2005) give a meaning of a survey. It alludes to a strategy for information accumulation that uses discussions or questionnaires with systems for recording the verbal responses of the respondents (p.124). A survey is viewed as primary information as it is specifically significant to a specific study and issue articulation. It is a powerful apparatus to get feeling, mentalities and depictions and for getting circumstances and end results connections. Backstrom and Hursh (1981) distinguish both advantages and disadvantages for gathering information through this method. On one hand, it gives an entrance to an extensive variety of members which will give a lot of information. But, the gathered information might be shallow since the survey can’t be controlled by the specialists. The respondents have the chance of noting anyway they like or even pick not to reply to a few inquiries in the event that they are not willing to. For instance, if the questionnaire is too long, a respondent may get drained and choose not to proceed with the survey. Survey as quantitative data collection tool Purpose of the survey

The purpose of the paper is to discover how Israel can raise the country brand mindfulness among residential and international audiences through social media. Along these lines, to get the information significant to this specific study and question, a survey is an efficient technique in gathering the information. The point of the survey is to pick up data about Israeli social media clients’ demeanors and sentiments towards Israeli’s digital media procedure. The aftereffect of the study will demonstrate the accomplishment of Israel in raising the country brand mindfulness among Israeli individuals. As such, it will demonstrate individuals’ general observation about the way Israel engage with social media exercises to elevate the image of the nation. Rationale of the survey

The survey comprises of twenty inquiries separated into six classes. They incorporate internet usage behavior, travelling behavior, knowledge about Israel’s branding, knowledge about Israel’s social media, general information about the respondent and general opinion about Israel. The survey begins from getting some information about the respondent’s travelling conduct. Later, it will limit down to the objective gathering of the survey, respondents who are acquainted with Israel and use social media stages in social platforms in collecting touring info.

The length of the study affects the answers given by the respondents. He or she may feel tired and lose enthusiasm for noting the inquiries if the survey is too long (Ghauri and Grønhaug 2005). For the survey utilized as a part of this study, the surmised length is around five minutes, for a qualifying respondent.

As per Ghauri and Grønhaug (2005), the inquiries must be asked in exceptionally basic and concise language. The researcher needs to consider the respondent’s experience, for example, training level and learning about the subject. Consequently, the inquiries ought to be balanced and adjusted as needs be.

Before posting a survey, the inquiries must be confirmed altogether so they are not seen in an unexpected way. The most ideal approach to check this is to do a pre-test on the genuine respondents (Ghauri and Grønhaug 2005). The questionnaire was dispersed to five target respondents who were requested that give criticism in regards to the length, language use and general sentiment about the survey. In the wake of getting remarks from these sample respondents, the questionnaire was revised so as to be more compelling and efficient.

3.6 Sample selection

After the study outline and methodology were drawn, the next step in the research procedure is to choose components from which the data will be gathered. One conceivable route is to gather data from a segment of the population by taking a specimen of components from the bigger group. In quantitative studies, sampling is critical as it seems to be fundamentally connected with quantitative examination, stressing estimation of different parameters, testing theories (Ghauri and Grønhaug 2005, p.155).

3.6.1 Sampling Method:

When it comes to sampling methods, the research question and objective will determine the method selected (Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, 2012). As my research question is about the effectiveness of social media campaigns on nation branding, it is impossible to define the sampling frame. This suggests that a non-probability sampling method will be applied. After researching further, the different sampling techniques of the non-probability sampling method, I believe that the best method will be volunteer sampling; self-selection sampling as this will allow me to advertise my need for participants and gather the data from those who responded.

Sampling method can be partitioned into two noteworthy classes: probability and non-probability sampling. Bryman and Bell (2007) state that probability sampling gives every unit in the population an equivalent shot of being incorporated into the example. It alludes to a representative selection as it can be utilized to sum up the whole populace. Then again, with non-probability sampling, a specimen is not chosen by utilizing a random selection strategy. Unexpectedly, a few units in the population will probably be incorporated than others.

For the experimental part of the study, at least 40 members were required. Toward the end, all the 40 members participated in this examination, which was adequate to begin investigation. There were no extraordinary solicitations to concentrate on particular gender or particular age group. What was common from respondents was their recognition and utilization of social media. In this way, I can say target populace for this study were social media users.

A non-probability sampling can be utilized while exhibiting that a specific attribute exists in the population. In this manner, non-probability inspecting would suit the purpose of this research paper since it doesn’t give everyone in the population an equal chance of being selected but just certain units. These units incorporate Israeli individuals who use social media and are acquainted with Israel. In the event that a probability test would be connected for this situation, any single unit of the populace can be chosen which may bring about an inadequate aftereffect of the review. For instance, a respondent who does not utilize the web won’t have the capacity to answer the inquiries.

In any case, utilizing this system likewise exhibits a few shortcomings. Because of the constrained group of delegate chosen all the while, it can misrepresent the whole populace which will later limit speculations of the results of the study. Additionally, the unwavering quality and the inclination of the researchers can be questioned.

3.7 Accessibility issues:

It is vital to conduct the interviews with the key members of staff in the foreign and tourism ministries, in order to obtain the most accurate information. However, some of the key employees are based in Israel and it will be challenging to have access to conduct the interviews. Another accessibility issue is to gather enough participants that will be willing to complete the research questionnaire.

3.8 Data Analysis

The data will be analyzed by using the qualitative information gathered during the interviews, to form an understanding of the importance of nation branding and the different resources invested in social media by the foreign and tourism ministries. The questionnaire will provide quantitative information and will be analyzed by collecting the feedback and comparing the results to suggest patterns and figures.

The study depends on distinct study outline. A questionnaire has been designed to be used to know the perspective of respondent with respect to the degree of social media that helps users either like or hate Israel as a nation. Initial segment of the questionnaire contains data with respect to demographics and utilization example of social media of the respondent. Second part has arrangement of close-ended circuitous questions which depend on effect of social media in making a tourist or investor get attracted by the environment presented by the nation. The survey will be done online through a personal network to help circulate the online questionnaire, and I will make myself available according to the timing I will be giving by my interviewees.  The reactions of the social networkers will then be gathered.

The instrument (questionnaire) will be put over Google docs and the connection will be sent to clients to fill the instrument through different social media accounts like Facebook, Orkut, Twitter, LinkedIn, Hi5 and Bebo. The respondents and other individuals on various social media platforms were likewise asked for to post the questionnaire from their profiles. So the examining system utilized was non-probability convenience sampling. I will utilize visual representation of showing findings and results like bar graphs, pie charts and tables.


3.8.1 Research limitations

The main limitation is the timeframe available to conduct the research. It will be challenging to find the time to hold interviews with key members of the foreign and tourism ministries that are based in Israel, as well as reaching out to general participants, in order for them to complete the research questionnaire. The limited timeframe will also effect the ability to process all the available literature and data collected.

3.8.2 Ethical Considerations

Ethical concerns are influenced by the type of investigation and chosen methods and they are possible at any stage; research proposal, data collection, sampling, analyzing and submitting your findings (Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, 2012). There are two main ethical issues that I can detect whilst working on my research; favoritism, as I work at the same organization as the people I want to interview, and ethical issues regarding all participants. To deal with both issues, I plan to analyses the interviews and questionnaires as they are, without bringing my personal feelings or influenced by my work relations. I will also follow the ethical guidelines, and submit for all participants Participant Consent Form (PCF) as well as Participant Information Sheet (PIS)



























Results of the quantitative study

In this segment, the general picture of the findings will be presented to demonstrate the general results of the study as indicated by each classification. This part will give an analysis of the overview of Israel’s Brand around the world. It will explore the unique segments of the review with the related inquiries and the individual answers from the various respondents. Additionally, it will build up connections between the hypothesis and results. Again it ought to be noticed that the study is not representative and that therefore the following investigations and conclusions just apply to the 40 finished surveys.

Target audience

This section gives an insight of the target audience in order to be able to communicate with them. Since the questions on the questionnaire seeks to address the effectiveness of social media in nation branding, how the government applies the strategies in the UK, the media channels used, the challenges they face in their attempts to sell Israel to the outside world and whether the process of branding Israel has been successful, the target group had to be considered. This is because the results gotten mirrors the general conclusion at the end of the research. The fact that there are more internet and Facebook users among youngsters than more grownups, may likewise influence the reaction inclination. Nonetheless, as the cardinal reason for making this is to make an exploratory examination of the effectiveness of social media in campaigns in light of Israel’s image all over the world, the sample can’t be illustrative in light of restricted assets; the response predisposition might as well be less noteworthy.

Relation to Israel

The focus of this area is to examine diverse points identified with the respondents’ individual connection to Israel. The points are examined in inquiries in the questionnaire. To scrutinise on the strategy Israel is using towards nation branding, the response seemed to revolve around: the approach of bringing Israel ‘beyond the conflict’ to the table. New agendas and narratives has to be taken concentrating on three major topics: sustainability, hi-tech and life science. Within these topics the nation will have a variety of opportunities to showcase their positive sides. On the other hand, the role of the embassies abroad is to push these agendas in every aspect of their work not forgetting the social media. Addressing question two on the existence of other Israeli ministries to partner, it was said that the process was initiated by the ministry of foreign affairs. Israel Government Advertising Agency (LAPAM) was such an organisation that teamed up with the ministry to actualise its task of improving the country’s image. The branding was done by OPEN and implemented within all the ministries. They use all the visual elements.

Then there was the question on How Israel implements the strategy in the UK, R.Y stated that they do many thing ranging from events, meetings, talks, and activities on social media and much more that focus on the three topics decided by the ministry.

The question on the channels applied in nation branding, the majority said that they had their insight into Israel from books, movies, daily papers, the web or another media (e.g. Facebook). Different answers with generally high scores were; “I buy Israeli products” – 6%, “have conversed with/know a man from Israel”– 11% and “have been to Israel” – 54%. The rate of individuals who have been to Israel might be marginally higher as a couple of respondents demonstrated that they had considered in Israel under the “other” choice.

Addressing the fifth question on what difficulties existed on social media in regard to selling Israel to the outside world, the issue of the anti-Semitic and anti-Israel posts or media exposure for that matter, fan pages, wrong timings, photos, negative comments and videos emerged. This were the images that are always fuelled by the fight between Israel and Palestine.

On the last question on the questionnaire on whether Israel branding process is successful or not, some answered yes while others said no. there are still those who had no idea on this issue. R.Y said that the process was indeed successful. It was said that there are some niches that they are successful at, however they still hear the term pink-washing, and other negative comments about the conflict with the Palestinians and the absence of peace in the region. There are respondents who said that they ought to visit Israel soon or have even visited the country. Those who had been to Israel said that they were on “vacation” – 29% and “visiting companions/family” – 17%

on another interview with N.O, the question of the budget Israel uses and if there is anyone in charge of the social media campaigns was raised. N.O, who is a tourism attaché in the UK said that the ministry invests around 500,000 NIS a year, and most of the work in the social media takes place on Facebook, twitter and Instagram. There is an employee who deals with all social media, but we use companies for special campaigns. On the issue of what content, they promote online, N.O said that the main focus of the work we do on social media is around tourism, as well as areas that are related and attract tourists like culture and sport. For example, they will promote the Jerusalem Marathon, the Opera festival, bird-watching festival and much more. In the last 18 months, they have been more focused on sales. If in the past they would post a beautiful photo of Jerusalem, and write about how great it is, but today, they post similar photos with a call for action- where they add the price of a short break. He agrees that it is hard to quantify the influence of their campaigns, so to be able to do it better, they now add new elements that will help them measure the impact of each post, such landing pages, and they are able to learn if the message, timing and wording were right.

On the issue of the two city break campaign which is the latest campaign Israel has had on social media, this is what N.O had to say; “The campaign is for all of Europe, and the ministry invested 40,000,000 in the campaign. The social media aspect is big in percentage. The campaign is the work of the ministry together with the LAPAM (Israel’s Government Advertising Agency), but each office in Europe is in charge of their countries. So we influenced the language, timings, media exposer and so on.” Then came the question on the effect of the negative image Israel has on social media. I asked N.O if they still have to invest on social media when some of the comments are so negative. In response, this is what he said; “This is the million-dollar question and we have discussions about this question internally at the ministry as well as with our suppliers. I believe that we must appear on social media as it is becoming the most popular way for our target audience to consume and search for information and we must have presence on these channels. We work hard on defining the target audience and we also work to limit the comments that are unfitting.”

Bearing in mind that Israel has always been considered as the nation most biblical happening took place, I asked him what he had to say about the branding process in the country and what stands behind the tagline- Israel land of creation-. He was quick to respond to this. He said that he branding process was done by the foreign ministry, but they in fact were the main executers of the branding as they work with PR companies, marketing and branding companies.

On target audience, he said that they targeted the general public, the LGBT community, the Jewish


community, christens and so on. He said that they specify their campaigns according to the target audiences and they try to focus the message accordingly. He however said that there is no collaboration with the foreign ministry in the UK when I enquired if there was any collaboration. He said that this was actually a shame.

Enquiring whether those who had never been to Israel would like to go to Israel, the respondents gave different reasons.  The primary reason was “to go for vacation‟ where a high number of respondents, i.e. 60%, addressed “yes”. The second reason was for business where 6% addressed “likely” and 22% addressed “not likely”. The third reason was “to live and work” with 26% noting “likely” and 23% noting “not likely”. Whatever remains of the answers were doled out to the alternative “don’t know”. However, it ought to be noticed that the three sub-questions have just been replied by 40 respondents individually and are therefore fairly fragmented.

Addressing the question on what the respondents think of when they hear of the world “Israel” the following terms were frequently featured where some of which can be viewed as to some degree negative. These were the answers and the number of times mentioned enclosed; great food (2), hot weather (1), Tel Aviv (18), beaches (1), Mediterranean (1), night life (1), and gay friendly (5). The uniqueness of the answers is less clear. A few answers are entirely not remarkable to Israel and can in this manner be considered as Israel’s purposes of contrast (13). Others, for example, Jerusalem (8), Jewish (21), Religious (6) and Holy land (7) are one unique to Israel but rather might be connected with. Moreover, the greater part of the answers identifies with Israel’s tendency, creatures, sights and culture – all things which are associated with tourism and travelling. E.g. just several answers identify with Israeli items like; Soldiers (3), army (3), wars (4), Terrorist attacks (7) Settlements (3) Democracy (4), Start-up nation (1), Science and technology (5) and oppression (4).

To outline, it can be said that the vast majority of the respondents have in any event some knowledge of Israel and that this information mostly originates from various types of media, Israeli items and from conversing with Israelis and going to the nation. The significant purposes behind respondents to visit Israel is as get-away or to visit loved ones.

4.2. Presentation of the outcomes

 Travelling behaviour

when it comes to travelling, responds had their own ways of looking for the appropriate destinations. The channels where respondents look the travelling data shows that nearly 65% of the respondents use the online channels in seeking for travelling data. These online channels incorporate sites and the social media. The chart below shows the sources from which they get information concerning their travel destinations.




Internet usage behaviour

Concerning social media accounts, each respondent (100%) has a Facebook account as the survey was disseminated through this channel. The second most well-known record is YouTube with more than 65%. Respondents who have a Twitter account as well though this number was just about half. Pinterest and LinkedIn came in the fourth and fifth spot with 19% and 17% respectively. Other social media accounts as Instagram accounted for 10%.


The measure of Nation Branding

In the case of the state of Israel, the Ministry of Tourism in collaboration with the Foreign Ministry has pinpointed its messaging on both the nation’s history as well as its current day business invention under the punch line of: ‘Israel, Land of Creation’ (Ministry of Tourism, Israel). The recent of campaigns invites the tourists to visit and appreciate a city vacation for some days, checking in Israel’s two major scenic places; Jerusalem and Tel Aviv. However, when in the case of Israel, social media has been awash with the political issues regarding the country, which posts a very absurd brand recognition.

dimensions of nation branding (Place brands)

Among the 40 respondents probed, 24 were women and 16 were men. There was a bit of age gap however: age bracket (24-30) accounted for a percentage of 75 %, (31-40) represented a percentage of 20% and those who were well above age 40 were about 5%.

Nation brands in Israel according to the parameters

As indicated by the overviews done, it can be presumed that the social media might be one effective way in promoting the image of a country. In other words, social media could be vital in nation branding though the process needs to be monitored and managed soundly. The following parameters are discussed in light of Israel’s efforts to increase the effectiveness of their social media campaigns to improve their brand as a nation.


  1. Tourism

According to Yoder, (2014) tourism is the world’s fourth largest export industry. It is the most visible aspect of a country brand because it receives considerable financial support from the government, and is therefore the main marketing tool at the national level. Israel have tried to start various campaigns on social media to attract tourists from all over the world. they have been posting photos of scenic places that are tourist attraction. however, they have experienced difficulties since not everyone believes that Israel could be a good tourist destination.

  1. Export Brand

Within the global market, there is a constant struggle to increase share of exports. Export brands represent an important mark for each and every country (Yoder, 2014). Israel have tried to sell themselves on social media to attract potential customers from all over the world especially Europe and America. They have tried to bring out the perception that they are tech experts and therefore people should buy their products.

  • Investment

The rate of inward investments is also an issue in the global economy because of numerous advantages they bring: positive competition, increased quality standards, a flow of skills, knowledge and information between countries, increased employment, technological advances and innovations. Israel as a country have tried to lure potential investors into their country. They have tried using the social media in attempt to show that they are open for business.

  1. Foreign and domestic policies

Nations are also judged in accordance with the foreign and domestic policies that their leaders initiate. Foreign and domestic policies must be coordinated so that they would invigorate the national brand (Frost 2004). Israel have set policies that seem to be favorable to the international investors and tourist.

  1. People

It is also important to identify people’s internal and external perceptions or images and the differences between them, which eventually will have to be corrected. The people of Israel have been perceived as being racist and this have affected the nation brand negatively. They have also been perceived as being harsh and cold to Palestine and foreigners from Africa.

  1. Culture and Heritage

Culture is linked to the country itself. It is reassuring because it links the country’s past with its present. Culture is also enriching as it deals with non-commercial activities. Moreover, it is dignifying since it shows the spiritual and intellectual qualities of a country’s people and institutions. The cultural heritage of the Israeli people has been perceived as being favorable and therefore not very many restriction as in other Arab countries.

Professor Simon Anholt, a renowned worldwide master on nation branding built up the Nation Brands Index in 2005 as an approach to quantify the image and reputation of the world’s countries, and to keep track on their profiles as they fall or rise in organisation with Roper Public Affairs and Media, one of the world’s driving examination firms. The studies survey almost 35000 individuals in 35 nations every year, getting some information about their impression of the nations (Dinnie, 2009).

The inquiries spread within six measurements of movement: Tourism, Exports, Governance, Investment furthermore, Immigration, Culture and Heritage and People. Every year 35 nations are studied.

Notwithstanding the overviews the future Brand specialist’s direct profound meetings with a Global assorted board of specialists in arrangement and administration, worldwide relations, financial matters and exchange, universal law, national security, vitality and environmental change, urban and provincial arranging, movement and the media to shape the last brand status of a nation. The HDM model considers five measurements: Value System, Quality of Life, Good for Business, Heritage what’s more, Culture and Tourism.

The Status of Israel in the worldwide Surveys

In spite of the fact that the techniques employed by the nation branding index (NBI) in finding out how nations are seen by the general public, a general image of how Israel is seen somehow positive. This is due to it being perceived as the “place of Creation” and “start-up country”.  The NBI group led a branding study of Israel in 2014 which concluded that: “Worldwide Survey Confirms Israel Is the Worst Brand in the World.” (Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, 2014) Israel’s image is by a far the most negative that have ever been measured in the NBI, and come at the base of the positioning on verging on each inquiry. If Israel will probably advance itself as an attractive spot to live and put resources into, the test gives off an impression of being a high one”. (Dinnie, 2009) The NBI was the pioneer of positioning of the world’s country brands. (Aronczyk, 2008) This finding is upheld by repeated BBC reviews in which natives were asked about how they saw Israel’s impact on the world. Last review was led in 2012 – 2013. The results of the 2013 overview can be contrasted with the 2010-2011 study to watch the course of progress in how Israel’s worldwide impact is perceived.

In the response to the inquiry how individuals saw the worldwide impact of Israel in 2010- 2011 review, 21% saw Israel’s impact as “primarily positive” while 49% saw it as “for the most part negative”. The rest-30% addressed they were “neither or unbiased”. Just three nations got to some degree lower positive rating than Israel-Pakistan with 17% positive, North Korea and Iran with 16% positive. In the 2102-2013 overview Israel got 21% positive (no change) yet the negative impression of Israel’s worldwide impact expanded by 3% to 52% negative. Again just three countries got to some degree lower positive Results-North Korea 19% Pakistan and Iran 15%.

Israel’s negative worldwide impact rating was in similar to that in Pakistan North Korea and Iran. The BBC overview additionally measured the topic of Global impact per groups of observers in particular nations. While in the time of 2010-2013 there was some change in positive perspectives of the Israeli worldwide impact in the USA, there was an expansion in the negative observation of Israel’s worldwide impact in Canada, Russia, France, Germany, Italy, Spain and India (in Russia the negative impression of Israel’s impact ascended from 17 to 32%!!).

The future Brand CBI overviews concentrate on business branding of a nation and behaviour the overviews among specialists. Israel was positioned number 30 in 2010, number 28 in 2011 and number 27 in 2012 in a rundown of 118 nations studied. A slight change over time. Unmistakably the business image of Israel is much better than its political recognition among the total population studied by the NBI and earlier on by the NBI. Israel enjoys a solid economy which is an observer to this business discernment. It is sensible to accept that from the perspective of authenticity, the political recognitions, particularly in law based nations, will have more weight in UN votes. Over the long haul, the negative political recognitions may adverse effect the Israeli economy.

The Israeli Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MFA) together with the tourism ministry put much accentuation on the branding of Israel as “Land of Creation”, the “Start Up nation”. There is much open deliberation among specialists with regards to the genuine estimation of these endeavours. The future Brand reviews do demonstrate that Israel appreciates a far superior image along business measurements than NBI political surveys. This in itself legitimises the MFA branding endeavours which are supported by hard evidence demonstrating that Israel stands out amongst the most inventive nations on the planet per capita or different measures.  The NBI political reviews do demonstrate that a noteworthy part of the total population, around 30%, addressed the inquiry concerning how they view Israel’s impact on the planet as “Neither Neutral”. This is a huge group that can be impacted by the Israeli branding endeavours. Seeing Israel as a positive creative power that solves major worldwide issues in welfare, sustenance creation, water decontamination and other life enhancing innovations, may have a beneficial outcome on this current generations’ political image of Israel. Allen Rosenshine the previous Chairman and CEO of BBDO overall said in 2010 at a group at IDC Herzliya on the issue of Israel’s branding endeavours: “The majority of Israel’s awesome accomplishments – social, political, financial, instructive, restorative, innovative, horticultural – can’t counter the developing impression of Israeli administration and militarism, discernments are reality, and the recognitions have changed fundamentally. It is enticing to think about this as a branding issue yet it disparages it. Unless Israel advances sound, reliable approaches on the foundation of a Palestinian express, Israel’s image on the planet will keep on declining to the point of debilitating its exceptional presence”.

And as Prof Simon Anholt said: “legislative issues of a country can influence each and every part of a man’s recognition around a nation. To succeed in for all time changing the nation’s image, the nation must be set up to change its conduct” (Dinnie, 2009). so must Israel.









This study got the focal point of consideration on social media’s effectiveness in raising the country brand awareness through campaigns for the foreign markets. Taking into account an exploratory methodology, the problem statement was constructed as follows:

What is the effectiveness of Social Media Campaigns in Nation Branding? 

Firstly, looking at Israel, the paper demonstrated that social media has both negative and also positive attributes. As a nation with different traditions and impacts, it endeavours to fight against existing stereotypes and promote its unique cultural heritage. Israel’s ministry of foreign affairs is in charge of making the concept of nation branding through the social media platforms for the nation has quite a difficult task of changing existing and profound negative perceptions internationally. Its fundamental objective is to enhance the nation’s economy and influence the brand awareness to the nation, as indicated by the international standards.

While looking at the range of nation branding, it was found that there are a few measurements to be addressed, apart from tourism. Nation branding includes the business capability of a nation, personal satisfaction or cultural heritage. Tourism is an important component to the nation’s economy and an integral part of the attempt to brand the country and as such, the Tourism ministry is a big part of Israel’s efforts abroad.

To reach its stakeholders, Israel utilises an assortment of channels, from Facebook to Twitter. As indicated by the information gathered, the nation has a developing interest in utilising digital media as a correspondence stage to reach its publics.

Its current way of dealing with social platforms, displayed by the information in this paper, demonstrate that Israel is focused on utilising social media as another correspondence channel for contacting its audiences. Israel’s social media engagement can’t be disregarded as it has contributed both monetary and human resource benefits in making and enhancing the digital media presence and it has done this in a consistent way, not as a task based methodology. Lacking skill in the field, it externalised the procedure to an approved and more experienced organisation, to amplify the result of the system. Looking at Facebook and Twitter, which are the principle social media platforms used, the user’s conduct demonstrated a higher level of inclination more towards the initially said platform.

However, to better see how the digital technique is seen by general society, a quantitative study was done, uncovering conceivable decision directions for the nation. The study demonstrated that as a nation, Israel is profoundly visible, while as a brand, the respondents demonstrated a low level of awareness and they didn’t link it to the nation. As to brand concept, the information created by the research accomplished for the secondary information pointed towards the need of a repositioning, making it clearer and presenting a singular message only aimed at improving the perception of Israel to the world at large. This doesn’t suggest a change of the present strategy, but instead a repositioning available, connecting all exercises to it with the goal that it turns out to be more noticeable, creating an alignment in people’s perception of the concept.

Investigating the level of accomplishment, the current advanced technique has, it was demonstrated that for the group’s engagement, the quantity of users is not a valid criterion. As the social media offers the probability of a two-way correspondence, it is critical for Israel to not just fortify the association with its present audience but additionally pull in new ones.

According to the data presented, it can be seen that the social media can be an effective tool for nation branding campaigns. However, there needs to be strategies laid to ensure that the whole process is successful. It can be seen that Israel have tried various social media campaigns in an effort to elevate their image as a country, but the impact is not much felt. The negative image created by their neighbours, Palestine, is a big threat to them. they might have done their best in attracting tourists in the country by showing scenic views in Tel Aviv and its environs.

Their campaigns’ effects are cut short by the wars and tussles that occur from time to time on the Gaza strip and parts of Jerusalem. It turns out that the physical battle in a matter of time has now become an online battle aimed at ruining the reputation of Israel.

5.1 Limitations of the paper

The study completed in this paper has a few impediments, because of the picked research strategies and speculations, in this manner leaving different parts of the subject unrevealed.

Checking the research techniques, the quantitative approach was chosen to assess the viability of social media in nation branding effort, through an online review. Despite the fact that this kind of technique offers the chance to gather a lot of information, it doesn’t give any thorough data about the general’s conclusion. For instance, when getting some information about the brand idea or the nation’s social media exercises, a few decisions were given. Nevertheless, the respondents were not asked to give the purpose behind picking their replies. By joining the quantitative strategy with a subjective examination methodology, for instance a focus group, this would empower the study to uncover more detailed data about the explanation for the respondents’ choices. However, the position taken in this paper is business arranged, which suits progressively the quantitative examination technique.

Another limitation originating from the selected methodology is the sampling size. As said before, the non-probability sampling and does not give an assessment for the extent of the inspecting and the error of estimation, the outcomes along these lines can’t be summed up for the whole population of social media clients who may will to share their bits of knowledge on Israel and his utilisation of social networking in nation branding effort.

The channels utilised for investigation can likewise be viewed as a limitation, as the emphasis was on Facebook and Twitter. Other social platforms were not thoroughly examined, despite the fact that they are part of the social media system. Nevertheless, Facebook and Twitter represent the fundamental social media strategies utilised and as a part of request to investigate all the angle they incorporate, a contracted down methodology is required.


5.2 Recommendations and Future research directions

The focus of this paper is to investigate the capability of Israel’s social media procedures for raising their global country image awareness. One conceivable proposal for future research would be a more thorough investigation of the joint effort amongst Israel and the foreign organisations. It will give definite data in regards to its externalisation procedure on an endeavour to enhance their image as a country. Such a methodology can for instance lead to the accompanying examination question: How does Israel see the likelihood of of internalizing social media processes?

Another proposal for producing more thorough investigation and giving a superior future suggestion to Israel is to contrast its advanced media methodology and that of neighbouring nations. By looking at the methodologies of two unique nations, it will give the nation valuable data that can upgrade the present approach.

Every one of the moves made by Israel need to address the residential and audiences and always enhances the association with clients by taking part in the trading of data and tailor the message as indicated by its inclinations. This incorporates for instance participating in new platforms that represent a developing interest, for example, YouTube.

On the other hand, their social media platforms can urge guests to connect with them by noticeably connecting to their social media channels. Keeping in mind the end goal to fulfil this objective the following steps might be taken,

  1. Modify their social media platforms to supplement their social media strategy.
  2. Identify the actions they need their customers and prospects to take
  3. Implement their conversations and attempt to counter the negative publicity.
  4. Provide the content their visitors want.
  5. Maintain a steady Communication Style
  6. Send Advertisements.
  7. Use Web Properties to drive individuals to take the activities they are focusing on

With a specific end goal to impact their prospects and clients, their business exertion must follow a procedure that captivates and changes their prospects by executing these means, which must be essential piece of Social Media Marketing system.


  1. a) Develop the correct setting of their message
  2. b) Create a proper draw.
  3. c) Create the correct content that draws in the audiences
  4. d) Provide a specimen advertising
  5. e) Ensure that there are subsequent follow-ups.
  6. f) Request their followers to share data to others.

Israel’s work is to give this information in such a way that the audiences will be in a position to adopt and like their ideologies and scenic tourist attraction sites as well. They are supposed to ensure that they are seen in a positive light, make a positive brand and commodity reputation. With the present development and size of social media, we would even have the capacity to purchase items and services online. The medium is developing quickly and holds huge potential. Along these lines, it is time Israel made enduring systems that will adequately help them to win a bigger offer of business through the progressive social media and turn into the nation they want to be in the coming future. They should try their best and beat the negative publicity that have taken root due to their earlier tussles with Palestine.










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