Final Essay

Final Essay

Problem I


Please address in each part by way of a well-crafted and fluid essay response:


Part A:  Please define Risk in your own words.  How do Issues and Reality factor into your definition?


Part B: Please describe (to include examples) the Six Project Management Processes that comprise Risk Management.


Part C:  Please explain the Risk Response Strategies.  Please provide an example for each sub-type.



Problem II


Please address in each part by way of a well-crafted and fluid essay response:


Part A:  Please define a process, product, and project metric?  Please give examples of each type of metric.


Part B:  Please describe verification and validation to include the activities that support these functions.


Part C:  Please describe how technical, management, and business reviews are different. Please give examples.



Problem III


Please address in each part by way of a well-crafted and fluid essay response:



Part A:  Please explain how Change Management fits within IT Project Management.


Part B:  Please compare and contrast Leavitt’s Model of Organizational Change and Lewin’s Model of Change.  How does Elizabeth Kubler-Ross’s Grief Model compliment these two models? Please provide examples to support your essay response.


Part C:  Please discuss the five (5) approaches to managing or dealing with conflict in an organization.  If the Executive Leader of a particular organization believes in the “Great Man” Theory, which leadership style and conflict management style would this Executive adopt?






The CIO of Drewmobile Incorporated walks into your office one late Friday evening.  As she closes the door behind her, she says that “If you saying anything to anyone concerning what I’m about to tell you, you’re fired.”  She then explains that the team of programmers that you supervise will be “released to seek other options” and that all of your work project’s programming tasks, with respect to the new energy efficient electric engine, will be outsourced to a company located in Eastern Europe. Your job is to coordinate with this new outsource provider so that all programming work can be scheduled and transferred over in less than three (3) months.   In addition, you’re not to let on to any of Drewmobile’s programmers that they will soon be replaced.  She instructs you to carry on as nothing has changed.  In fact, Drewmobile Incorporated will give them a bonus if they can complete their current work assignment on the 500 mile lithium battery that powers the new energy efficient electric engine in three months rather than the scheduled four months.


As the project manager of this team, you’ve gotten to know each of the programmers fairly well.  For example, one of the programmers has just signed a mortgage to purchase her first house.  Another is a single mother with her oldest child just entering college, and another has just confided in you that he has been experiencing some health problems.


Please address in each part by way of a well-crafted and fluid essay response:



Part A:   Please explain which ethical leadership category the CIO of Drewmobile Incorporated falls into.


Part B:  Now consider your response to her request, and describe which ethical leadership category you would place yourself into. Please explain your response to the CIO in order to support your answer.


Part C:  Why are personnel issues important when an organization (for example, Drewmobile Inc) or project manager is considering outsourcing activities?


Part D:  Why is it important that organizations and project managers understand which activities should and should not be outsourced?  Did Drewmobile Incorporated violate this heuristic?


Part E:  How would you manage this situation via the three processes that comprise Project Communications Management?







Problem V


Please address in each part by way of a well-crafted and fluid essay response:


Part A:  Why might an organization be reluctant to terminate a project that many would consider unsuccessful?


Part B:   Before a project is completely terminated, please explain why it is important that several reviews or evaluations be conducted.


Part C:  Why would evaluating whether a project achieved its MOV make many project managers and teams anxious?  Why should it still be done?

Problem I

Part A: Definition of Risk

Risk refers to a likeliness of a danger or threat to damage, destroy, undermine, loss, burden, or any other undesirable incident that occur as a result of either an external on internal exposures or weaknesses and that might be evaded through various preventative strategies and actions.

Risk being a likeliness of danger or threat, it factors the concept of Issues, in that, it is a socially built and complicated aspect that humans have developed to deal with the fear of unknown incident that may happen.

Risk being an incident that insinuates fear, it factors the concept of Reality, which is an essential human reaction to a danger or threat to damage.

Part B: Project Management Process that comprise Risk Management

Project management processes are concerned with describing and organizing the work of the project. They refer to a conceptual framework for program and project management. The processes include;

            Project initiation. This is the first phase of project management. The phase is often given the least attention. It describes the scopes and purposes of the project. At this stage, the project is still reflected as an early stage and it is, therefore, suitable to generate an initial high-level Project Proposal. The proposal created will help in ensuring that the project sponsors and stakeholders are able to quickly recognize the scopes of the project and identify alternate strategies in case of any modifications.

            Project planning. The second stage of the project management lifecycle. The phase weights on the planning and scoping the project. During this phase, a project manager is tasked to evaluate the budget and schedule and recognizes the suitable resources that are required for the project efficacious completion. The data are then captured in the Project Charter, used to deliver better transparency on the scope how the objectives will be achieved.

            Project execution. At this stage, a specific project management structure is identified. The structure comprises – directing committee, executive sponsor, and project sponsor. The project team members are also informed and cast in their roles on the project as allocated by the manager. The team members then heighten the project work plan as necessary and are assigned responsibility for their precise responsibilities and deliverables. The manager then works collaboratively with the project management team to monitor the efforts, update the plan, resolve project matters and acquire main business judgments when needed.

            Project control. This is the phase where the managers engross every activity that the project and the team must do to sustain the work of the project fulfill planned scope. The phase goes through the life cycle of the project to confirm that the project stakeholders are cognizant and to absorb their antagonistic influence to the project.

            Project close. After the project activities are fulfilled and the project’s clients have ratified the outcome, a valuation is conducted, to underpin the project achievement and/or learn from the project experience. This phase provides an important input to unceasingly improve and enhance project management methodology methods and process enhancements, templates, lessons learned and examples.

            Post-project evaluation. This phase of project management is devoted to the effort required to determine and maintain the final success of the project in terms of; its overall management viewpoint; its end products and results; all stakeholders’ perspective of both the project and its results, including turnover of people both during and after the project close phase. This stage identifies the strengths, weaknesses, and threats that may be converted to opportunities which could result in a viable phase for future projects of the organization.

Part C: Risk Response Strategies

Risk response refers to the process of building up various strategies options and establishing the actions to aim at improving opportunities and minimizing threats and hazards to the project’s overall goals and objectives.

For threats and hazards, the following outlines the appropriates response strategies;

            Avoid. It has been considered that risks can be avoided through the removal of the cause of the risk or implementing the project in a different approach while still aiming to accomplish the objectives of the project. Since not all risks can be avoided, this response strategy may be too expensive and time-consuming.

            Transfer. The transfer of risk from one party to another entails seeking a third party who is able and willing to take its management, and also willing to bear the risk’s liability if it happens. The essence of risk transfer is to ascertain that the risk is owned and managed by the party best able to handle it efficiently. The transfer involves periodical premium payments, and cost-effectiveness must also be considered when seeking the option of whether or not to adopt a transfer strategy.

            Mitigate. Risk mitigation involves the reduction of the likelihood and/or impact of a severe threat to a tolerable threshold. Prior plan of actions to minimize the severity is usually more substantial than trying to repair or amend the damage after the risk has already occurred.

For opportunities, the following outlines the appropriates response strategies;

            Exploit. This risk response aims at ensuring that the opportunity is comprehended. It seeks to avoid or eliminate the improbability related to a particular upside risk by making the opportunity positively occur. It is an aggressive method that easily grasps ideal opportunities.

            Share. This is a strategy that aims at allocating the risk ownership of an opportunity to another party who is best able to exploit its likelihood of occurrence and escalate the potential advantages if it does occur. Transferring risk and sharing the opportunities may be similar in that, those to whom threats are transferred bear the liability while those to whom opportunities are allocated should be allowed to share in the potential benefits.

            Enhance. This response focuses on how to enhance the size of the positive threat. The opportunity is enhanced through the increase of its likelihood and/or effect, thus escalating the gains realized for the project.

            Acceptance. This risk response strategy is implemented when it is not possible to respond to the threat by the other mentioned strategies, or a response is not justified by the significance of the risk. If the managers of the project accept the risk, then they agree to address the risk in case it occurs.



Examples of Risk Response.

Risk Statement Risk Response
Inaccurate data in the survey file leading to rework of the design. Mitigate: Work with surveys to authenticate that the file is accurate and comprehensive.
Possible lawsuits tend to delay the commencement of the project construction or loss of fund. Mitigate:  Address apprehensions of stakeholders and public during the environmental procedure.
Nesting birds may delay the construction of the site during the nesting season. Mitigate: schedule the project to avoid the nesting season or eliminate the birds’ habitat.
Harmful equipment met during construction leading to potential additional expenses. Accept: Ensure a storage space will be accessible.
Unexpected buried artificial components recovered during construction that needs removal and proper proposal. Transfer: Involve a supplemental work to cover the risk.
The complications in staging process lead to the additional right of way or construction. Share: Re-sequence the work to a third party to ensure that its right of way is certified at their own potential advantage.
Numerous parcels lead to the use of condemnation process that requires right of way delaying the start of construction. Enhance: Work with Right-of-Way and Project Management to prioritize work and secure additional right‐of‐way resources to reduce impact.


A design modification that is not within the anticipated parameters leading to delay of the project construction.


Avoid: Control and monitor the design modifications to avoid re-evaluation.



Problem II

Part A: A Process, Product, and Project Metric

            Process metric. This is a measurement unit that is used to improve the efficiency of an existing process in project development and maintenance. Examples of process metrics include; the level of defect detection, the defect’s density, and time to fix the defect.

            Product metric. This is a unit of measure that outlines and describes the features of the product in terms of its size, design characteristics, compatibility, performance and quality level. Examples of product metrics include; lines of codes and defect detection rate.

            Project metric. This is a unit of measure that outlines the project’s team ability to perform the project implementation. Examples of project metrics include; productivity, schedule, and number of developers and testers.

Part B: Verification and Validation to include in Process, Product, and Project Metric Functions

The systematic collection and assessment of suitable metrics may be considered an invaluable factor of a severe feedback and control procedure whereby software development and maintenance organization are able to verify and validate that performance level conforms to the customary customers’ needs and expectations. However, the metric functions have been notably to being complicated in execution especially in such organizations that have not yet progressed beyond the simple measurements of cost, schedule, and level of effort. The three basic units of measurement (process, product, and project metrics) enhance various project management guidance and are sometimes insufficient in offering strong evidence of customer satisfaction.

With that effect, the Software Engineering Institute (SEI) developed a model that needs the fundamental metrics set of schedule, effort, size, cost and critical computer resources to reach the standards. A comprehensive metric validation and verification methodology was proposed to integrate various quality factors, metrics, and quality functions. The methodology involved such criteria as reliability, certainty, and repeatability used in the identification of essential factors in metrics program success.

Part C: How Technical, Management, and Business Reviews Differs

            Technical reviews. These are the project’s evaluations that reflect the particular practical knowledge pertaining to mechanical and scientific aspects of the project’s construction. Examples of such technical reviews include; evaluation of a software development with the aim of detecting a defection, or the assessment of all equipment to ensure that they conform to the standards specified in the project’s objectives.

            Management reviews. These are the evaluations of the project that reflect the understanding of how the technology and the IT personnel work in coordination with the effect of ensuring that the outcomes meet their goals and objectives. Examples of such reviews include; assessment and understanding of the risks and rewards that the project presents, and how to direct a course of action that yields the greatest return on investment.

            Business reviews. These, however, are the evaluations that reflect the ability to perform professionally within the organizational composition. Such reviews include the assessment of both interpersonal and intrapersonal relationship within the personnel, in terms of communication, business image, problem-solving, mentoring, training, and development.

Problem III

Part A: How Change Management fits IT Project Management

Both change management and IT project management function independently through a most effective approach can be steered to fit change management in project management in order to create a unified approach to implementing change on both platforms. Change management can be integrated to fit project management in the following ways;

            When a transformational change is required. Since organizations are faced with various complex transformation such as multiple projects, the typical project management may not be sufficient to promulgate the personnel towards meeting the desired goals. This is where change management is required to allow for a platform top-down view of the way in which the workers will move from the current state to meeting the desired objectives and goals.

            When designing change with people in mind. Given that project management involve an emphasis on initial stakeholder analysis, mapping and communications planning, it needs change management that allows the plotting of the impact of the changes in the organization and teams.

            When adding depth to the delivery of change to people. Project management may deliver change that focuses on communicating the benefits and training the personnel in utilizing the new technology and processes. However, it’s the change management that formalizes and structures the feedback and responses in the utilization of the technology and processes. The change management provides the activities of the network for local support during project delivery.

            When the aim is for a shared objective. The project management and change management may be incorporated to outline an effort that focuses towards a single objective. This enhances the functionality of the organization by positively execute a change that offers the proposed outcomes.

Part B: Comparison and Contrast of Leavitt’s and Lewin’s Models of Organizational Change

Leavitt Kotter created a model that causes the change to become a campaign. The model involves eight steps that entail workers purchase into the change after the leaders convince them of the urgent need for the change to occur.

Kurt Lewin created a model of organizational change that includes three steps; unfreezing, changing and freezing. According to Lewin, the procedure engrossed in change entails development of a perception that change is required, then moving towards the new and preferred level of behavior then finally, freezing that the new behavior as the custom.


Both models are comprised of a visual summary of all the key factors that support the specific idea in an easy step-by-step model and clear steps that can deliver suitable guidance for the process execution.

Both models tend to focus on preparing and accepting the change, and not the actual change in that the explanation of the data should not be regarded as being objective within the general procedure of valuing the dynamic and restraining components.

Both models are considered very rational, goal and plan intended but their execution tends to be complicated as their process consume much time and may to some extent lack the significance of considering human experiences and feelings.


Leavitt Kotter’s model involves eight steps that entail workers purchase into the change after the leaders convince them of the urgent need for the change to occur while Kurt Lewin’s model involves an organizational change that includes three steps; unfreezing, changing and freezing.

Leavitt’s model stipulates that for that to be realized, the organization and its managers must anchor changes within the organizational culture by monitoring the acceptance and how well the culture is adapting to the change. However, Lewin’s model stipulates that for change to be realized, a force field analysis is explored to expand the evaluation beyond the information itself to look at qualitative elements that have impacts on the organizational success.

How Elizabeth Kubler-Ross’s Grief Model compliment these two models

Elizabeth Kubler-Ross developed a model, the Change Curve Model, which addresses the objections of the workers in any organization and explored all over the globe to assist people in understanding their reactions to various essential changes. The change curve model, also known as Grief model, involves three distinct stages as; Shock and Denial, Anger and Depression, and Acceptance and Integration.

The Grief model compliments Kotter’s and Lewin’s models in the essence that both affirms the notion that organizational change is to be regarded significant in that it provides a useful tool for managing both the individual change and the team/workers.

The Grief model also compliments the two models in the sense that every individual would feel excited about new opportunities and would like the change to happen fast. That, therefore, signifies that regular reports and praise through communication is the foundation for the change to be comprehensive.

Part C: The Approaches to Managing or Dealing with Conflict in an Organization

Organizational conflict is to some extent considered unavoidable, but that does not mean that it cannot be handled when it happens. The following approaches lay down how to manage or deal with conflict in an organization.

            Accommodating Approach. This approach is mainly used by managers who want to seem rational enough in their decision-making process. The approach incorporates cooperation in conflict resolution in that managers are always willing to yield outcomes where possible and to build a goodwill with all personnel.

            Avoiding Approach. This is an approach mainly explored by the managers who would rather seek to avoid conflict than handle it in the first place. It discharges the manager’s concerns and those of other workers, leaving the conflict unsettled. The approach is however useful in such instances where the conflict needs to be addressed at another time.

            Competing Approach. This approach is significant in an emergency condition in a case where decision requires to be made or to resolve a particular issue. The people who explore the detail of this approach are firm in whatever they believe and want, in that it works well from a position of power, expertise or strength.

            Compromising Approach. This approach is relatively in between assertive and cooperative approach. It aims at finding a mutually acceptable solution where all parties involved can stake an assertion of victory.

            Collaborating Approach. This approach explores the significance of a spirit of signifying unity, where the managers decide to collaborate by portraying a higher level of cooperation and assertiveness. It is always based on a win-win approach where both sides of significant differences agree to work together.

If the Executive Leader of a particular organization believes in the Great Man theory, which leadership style and conflict management style would this Executive adopt?

The Great Man Theory states that “some people are born with the necessary attributes that set them apart from others and that these traits are responsible for their assuming positions of power and authority.” In that effect, the theory suggests that a leader is a person who can influence their decisions by making sure that the organizational goals are achieved. The leader has the power to influence the behavior of others. An executive leader who believes in Great Man Theory would, therefore, adopt the Competing Approach of conflict resolution, which entails the exploration of the position of power, expertise or strength to effect resolution.

Problem IV

Part A: The Ethical Leadership Category the CIO of Drewmobile Incorporated falls into

The CIO of Drewmobile Incorporated falls into a Value-Driven Decision-Making ethical leadership category. In this kind of leadership category, all decisions made are checked to ensure that they involve general expansion of the business, and are accordance with the overall organizational values, despite the steps taken to enhance the expansion.

Part B: The Ethical Leadership Category I would fall into

I would request the CIO to maintain the initial organization, structure, flow of work and workers, in that I would still supervise my initial team of programmers working on the battery. I would explain to her that the incorporation would essentially seek other options for outsourcing after the scheduled four months and thus the employees should just carry on with their duties and responsibilities.

The ethical leadership category I would place myself into would be Humane Ethical Leader. This emanates from the fact that I place importance and essence in being kind, and act in a manner that would be beneficial to both the organization and the personnel.

I would also place myself as an Honest Ethical Leader. I would keep to myself the information given from the CIO as advised, but convey facts transparently on the adverse effects of seeking the option of another outsourcing company.

I would also place myself as a Just Ethical Leader. I would have no favorites but put both the organization and the workers first, keeping in mind that no worker has any reason to fear biased treatment on the basis of organizational priorities.

Part C: Why Personal Issues are Important when an Organization or Project Manager is Considering Outsourcing Activities

Considering outsourcing activities tend to differ significantly. However, the willingness to outsource should encompass employees issues and concerns in such a manner that defines benefits, defined-contribution and health-and-welfare plans for the employees. Once the employees figure out that the organization intends to outsource, they will have no option but be on an edge, wondering whether they might get affected, and may be hurt or offended. The employees may feel the decision to outsource reflects on their abilities and skills.

The employees go through various personal issues that when rendered out of their workplaces, would result in various adverse effects and implications and thus the project manager should consider an outsourcing activity that provides better career opportunities for employees to substantially progress.

Part D: Why it is Important for Organizations and Project Managers to Understand which Activities to or not to be Outsourced

Before the organization or the project manager engage in outsourcing activity, it is critical for them to understand that considering outsourcing of any kind lands them into huge risks. It is therefore important for the organizations and project managers to understand which activities to or not to be outsourced due to the following reasons:

Outsourcing is such a huge step and thus the organization should be vigilant enough not to lose the company’s competitive advantage. The activity to be outsourced should be able to retain the control over the elements that made the organization unique or defined the business.

The organization should also consider the costs of the outsourcing activities and weigh on those activities that would initiate a return on investment. For instance, choosing the right outsourcing company, the organization may lose time and encounter costs from networking websites or other sources.

The organization should also comprehend the fact that some activities to be outsourced may not fit best the overall needs, goals and objectives of the organization. The right decision is reached when the managers take time to compare and contrast their strengths with that of the organizational objectives.

The organization should also understand that the activity to be outsourced will manage the current employees carefully and appropriately. The manager should approach the decision with a forthright manner by disclosing all the information to all the staff and partners once the decision is made with the aim of eliminating fears and rumors if it occurs that the activity will edge some of the employees out.

Did Drewmobile Incorporated Violate this Heuristic?

Drewmobile Incorporated violated this heuristic. It would have been significant for the CIO to facilitate the transition, through communicating with the workers so that they understand what to expect and making sure their loyalty is still maintained.

Part E: How I would manage this Situation via the 3 Processes that comprise Project Communications Management.

Project Communications Management involve processes that ensure quick and suitable generation, gathering, dissemination, record, recovery, and vital disposition of project information. These processes include; Plan Communications, Distribute Information and Manage Expectations.

            Plan Communications. In response to the situation in Drewmobile Incorporation, I would determine the relevant approach of response to the organizational CIO with respect to how she should manage the current employees carefully and appropriately. The approach would stipulate her in engaging all the staff in the decision to be made.

            Distribute Information. I would make the information available to the CIO as planned, as well as responding to the unexpected requests for information, employing the essence of ethical leadership in the organization.

            Manage Expectations. I would communicate and work with my team of programmers in meeting their needs and address any issues they go through to the CIO. This would secure the chances of involvement and reduce the chances of risks associated with the outsourcing decision.

Problem V

Part A: Why an Organization may be Reluctant to Terminate a Project that many would consider Unsuccessful

Terminating a project is not an easy task. The managers tend to be reluctant to terminate an unsuccessful project through paying constant attention to the project’s metrics. With that effect, the managers would still need to put together a cancellation plan that carefully regards all the projects stakeholders and budget implications. The organization would still need to consult the human resource department it the termination means letting the employees go. And lastly, the organization would still need to debrief the team and have new assignments ready for them.

Part B: Reasons for conducting several Reviews before the Project is Completely Terminated

The several reviews conducted before the project is completely terminated. These reviews include performance review, a postmortem review, and project audit review. These serve the following purposes:

  • The reviews provide various opportunities for individual performance improvements,
  • They also ascertain if the project scope, schedule, budget and quality objectives will be accomplished, and how effective are the project deliverables in the business case,
  • They provide a more objective view of the project, through an audit for uncovering problems, issues, or opportunities for improvement if need be, and
  • They document lesson learned and thus best practices are identified,

Part C: Why Evaluating a Project make many Project Managers and Teams anxious

As the project ends, both the project managers and team become anxious because each would wish to know if their engagement gained valuable experience and feeling that their performance will have a positive impact on the project. The project manager would become more concern on the evaluation to gauge whether the time and money spent on the project reaped the envisioned goals and objectives as planned.

Why Evaluation should be done

It provides the foundation for taking on the project and supported many of the decisions ideas during the project life cycle and ensures that the project achieved the intended measurable organization value (MOV).