Multiple Sclerosis

Multiple Sclerosis

Multiple Sclerosis

Multiple sclerosis is a potentially disabling disease of the central nervous system and the brain.  The immune system of the body attacks the protective sheath that covers the nerve fibers resulting in a communication breakdown between the brain and the rest of the body (Dortch, 2016). The disease can cause the damage of the whole nervous system since the nerves themselves are damaged. The victim suffers from various problems that affect their physical and psychological wellbeing. This article will highlight the signs and symptoms, treatment and prevention and the consequences of the disease.

Signs and symptoms of multiple sclerosis

People suffering from multiple sclerosis might exhibit various Signs and symptoms. they might vary according to the level of damage. The signs include loss of sensitivity, muscle weaknesses, pronounced reflexes, difficulty with balance and coordination, muscle spasm, difficulties when swallowing food or drinks, bowel difficulties, and depression.

The victim might as well suffer from the following: inability and difficulties in walking due to numbness and the general weakness of the limbs. The numbness occurs at the side of the trunk or the legs, impairment usually on one eye where the victim experiences pain on when the eye moves. The victim might at times experience double vision, slurred speech, fatigue and dizziness and bladder problems.

Some patients might experience long periods of remission without any new attacks (Rog & Robinson, 2010)

Treatment and prevention of Multiple Sclerosis

There is no specific cure for multiple sclerosis but treatment basically focusses on speeding up the recovery period from attacks and slowing down the progression of the disease. treatment helps in managing symptoms as well. There are various methods, procedures and medication applied towards treatment and management of multiple sclerosis. They include corticosteroids, plasma exchange, application of beta interferons, glatiramer acetate, administering dimethyl fumarate, fingolimod teriflunomide, natalizumab, and mitoxantrone. Physical therapy, muscle relaxants, and medication to reduce fatigue might also apply.

Corticosteroids include such oral prednisone that is meant to reduce the nerve inflammation (Iezzoni, 2010). There might be some side effects associated with using this kind of medication. the side effects include high blood pressure, insomnia, fluid retention and mood swings.

Plasma exchange is a process that is also known as plasmapheresis which involves the removal of plasma from the blood cells. It is separated and removed from the cells which are then mixed with albumin then injected back into the body.

Beta interferons are used as Treatment for relapsing- remitting multiple sclerosis. they are injected into the muscle to reduce the rate of relapses. The side effects of this type of medication include injecting site irritation and flu.

Glatiramer acetate is used to block attacks of the immune system on myelin. The medication might be injected into the blood through injection. Its use has side effects such as skin irritation and injection site reactions. Dimethyl fumarate, on the other hand, is an oral medication meant to lower relapses. Its side effect includes diarrhea, low count of white blood cells and nausea.

Physical therapy is used to treat the symptoms when detected early. It enables the body to stretch. It manages limb weaknesses and gaits complications. Muscle relaxants are at times applied on parts of the body though the victim might experience painful muscle stiffness.

Short-term consequences of Multiple Sclerosis


Fatigue is most common to the patients due to the destruction of the nervous system. The problem might be tackled using the following ways: advising the patients to pace them serves. This is by not doing a lot of work. They are expected to do little work to avoid complications. They might as well be advised to take medication to relief them from sleep disorders and fatigue. Taking occupational therapy might help as well.


The patients might suffer from hard bowel motions. It becomes very difficult to pass stool and might at times cause pain. The solution to this kind of problem might involve drinking enough water, taking high fiber diet, physical therapy, and medical treatment.

bladder problems

People with multiple sclerosis suffer from the frequent urge to urinate. They have problems controlling their bladder and therefore dribble urine involuntarily. They might as well suffer from the inability to empty their bladders completely.

The patients at times suffer from severe pain when passing urine due to high temperatures of urine and urinary tract infections. Some pass smelly urine that is dark colored. The conditions might be treated with antibiotics.

Long Term Consequences of Multiple Sclerosis

sexual arousal problems

The disease affects the nervous system and therefore arousal becomes a problem among the victims. It might also be caused by fatigue. the problem is also associated with low libido, low sexual desire, and altered orgasm response. This affects their sex lives since their behaviors affect their partners too. The victims suffer from low self-esteem and require professional advice


People suffering from multiple sclerosis experience pain due to neurological conditions. The pain may as well, be caused by musculoskeletal problems that result from altered posture and spasticity (Kesselring, 2008). They experience pain on their knees and back. Relaxation techniques might help in tackling this problem

Psychological problems

People suffering from the disease might be psychologically affected by the disease. This causes memory problems and difficulty in concentration (Rog & Robinson, 2010). They might suffer from low self-esteem and depression


Multiple sclerosis has been known but its treatment remains difficult. It affects the functioning of the whole human body. Research has shown that gait patterns are determined by progression to the disease and not the physical exercise the patient gets involved in.  physical training has little or insignificant side effects as compared to using drug therapies. Further research is required to find a cure for the disease since no cure has been identified yet.


Dortch, R. D., Dula, A. N., Pawate, S., Barry, R. L., George-Durrett, K. M., Lyttle, B. D., & Smith, S. A. (2016). Magnetic resonance imaging of the cervical spinal cord in multiple sclerosis at 7T. Multiple Sclerosis Journal, 22(3), 320-328. doi:10.1177/1352458515591070

Iezzoni, L. I. (2010). Multiple Sclerosis. Santa Barbara, Calif: Greenwood.

Kesselring, J. (2008). Multiple sclerosis. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

Rog, D., & Robinson, I. (2010). Multiple Sclerosis. London: Class Pub.